16 terms

AQA GCSE Computer Science - Protocols

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Protocol
Special set of rules that the computers use when they communicate e.g. http, TCP/IP
HTTP
Protocol used used to transmit unencrypted webpages between a server and a client.

(The server is a Web Server and the Client is the device receiving the web page and displaying it using a Web Browser).
HTTPS
Protocol used used to securely transmit encrypted webpages between a server and a client

(The server is a Web Server and the Client is the device receiving the web page and displaying it using a Web Browser).
TCP
Protocol used to maintain a link between devices when transmitting data, to break the data down into packets and to check all packets have reached their destination. Resends lost packets.
IP
Protocol that works with TCP to address packets and decide the best route to send data.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. Used to transfer files between and client and a server on a network.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Used for sending e-mail messages from the client to the server and between servers.
POP
Post Office Protocol. Used by the client to retrieve email messages from the email server. Messages are deleted from the server once stored on the client.
IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol. Used by the client to retrieve email messages from the email server. Mail is kept on the server once downloaded.
Application layer
Top layer. Used to encode the data so that it can be understood by the receiving computer. Encoding uses the correct protocol for the application - e.g. HTTP / FTP / SMTP
Transport layer
Second layer in the TCP/IP stack. Sets-up a connection between the two hosts, agrees the protocol and packet size. Splits data into packets, adds the packet number and total number of packets (so they can reassembled correctly).
Network / Internet Layer
Third layer in the TCP/IP stack. This layer adds destination and sender IP addresses .
Link layer
Fourth layer in the TCP/IP stack. This layer adds MAC address of the sender and the recipient.
Wi-Fi
A trademarked name used by manufacturers that shows a piece of equipment can be connected to a Wireless Network.
Ethernet
A family of network protocols used widely in Local Area Networks that allow for the transmission of data across the network.
WWW
World Wide Web - content (images, text, video, files, webpages, etc.) stored on servers. The data is transmitted across the internet.
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