26 terms

Cambridge IGCSE Geography - 1.3 Population Structure

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What does a population pyramid show?
The age and gender structure of a country.
Young Dependants
Population of age below 16.
Elderly Dependants
Population of age above 65.
Economically Active
Population of age between 16 and 65.
Dependency Ratio
The ratio of the dependent population (the young and old) and the economically active.
(Young dependents + Old dependents) ÷ (Economically active)
Ageing Population
When the proportion of elderly population is increasing.
Reasons for an Ageing Population
Increase in life expectancy.
Decrease in birth rate and gradual increase in death rate.
(Happening in Stage 5 of the DTM e.g. Japan.)
Retirement Age
The (average) age at which people stop working.
Pensions
Money that the retired receive.
Problems of Ageing Population
Shortage of workers (not enough economically active) - leads to less taxpayers and the government receives less revenue.
The elderly are more vulnerable to sickness - pressure on healthcare and hospitals.
Too many elderly claiming pensions off the government can be very costly.
Provision of care homes and services - time-consuming and costly (e.g. meal on wheels).
Solutions to Ageing Population
Increase the retirement age.
Increase the amount of tax charged to the economically active (more government revenue).
Introduce private healthcare and pensions to reduce cost of government.
Encourage economic immigration to reduce dependency ratio.
Introduce a pro-natal policy to increase birth rates.
Advantages of Ageing Population
Less money to spend on schools.
Older people are less likely to commit crimes.
Old people travel less (no commuting) so congestion and pollution may decrease.
Commuting
Travelling from home to work and vice versa.
Problems of too many Young Dependents
Provision of child care.
Governments need to pay for children to go to school.
Young children are vulnerable to sickness and governments need to pay for healthcare.
An increase in the dependency ratio.
The need for teaching and nursing jobs.
Solutions to too many Young Dependents
Introduce an anti-natal policy (e.g. China's One-Child Policy).
Increase family planning and make contraception available and affordable.
Ensure females are educated and emancipated (freedom and equality of women).
Problems of too less Young Dependents
Closure of child-related services and loss of jobs (e.g. schools and nurseries).
Less economically-active consumers and taxpayers in the future.
May result in an ageing population.
Birth and fertility rates may fall below the replacement rate, causing population decline.
Solutions to too less Young Dependents
Introduce a pro-natal policy to increase birth rates.
Subsidise childcare and education to encourage more families to have more children.
Advantages of too many Young Dependents
Potentially large workforce in the future.
Larger number of people growing up and understanding modern technology.
Advantages of too less Young Dependents
Reduced dependency ratio.
Reduced education and medical costs.
Replacement Rate
The number of children each couple has to have to maintain a country's population.
Value of the Replacement Rate
2.1 - 2 to replace the couple when they die and 0.1 for children who may die in infancy or are unable to have children themselves (infertility).
Reproductive Age Range
The age that females normally have babies, typically between puberty and menopause.
Services for Old Dependents in MEDCs
Retirement homes
Public and private pensions
Personal savings
Public and private hospitals
Doctor surgeries
Day-care centres
Home help (meals on wheels)
Families (sons and daughters)
Services for Old Dependents in LEDCs
Families
Community
Basic medical care
Charitable organisations
Personal savings
Services for Young Dependents in MEDCs
Pre- and post-natal care
Hospitals and midwives
Doctor surgeries and vaccinations
Nurseries and schools
Nannies
Families (parents etc.)
Government child support
Orphanages
Services for Young Dependents in LEDCs
Families
Community
Basic medical care
Charitable organisations
Orphanages