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Moray's study on dichotic listening
Terms in this set (29)
Means that each stimulus is processed one by one in a step by step manner
What is serial processing?
Means that two or more operations can be carried out in parallel (at the same time)
What's is Allport's multi-channel theory of divided attention?
- selective attention: participants are presented with 2 messages simultaneously. They are asked to pay attention to one of them and repeat it aloud as they hear it.
-selective attention: participants are presented with 2 messages simultaneously but are asked to respond to both of them
What are the two methods of studying attention?
He identified the cock tail phenomenon. Which meant that people can pay attention to a single conversation in a noisy room while filtering out other stimuli.
He carried out a study which found that Ps could not remember the content of messages presented to the ear which they were not told to shadow
What did Cherry find out?
1. Experiment 1 aimed to test Cherry's findings about the amount of information recognised from a rejected message
2. Experiment 2 aimed to investigate the effects of Ps hearing their own names in the rejected condition
3. Experiment 3 aimed to find out whether Ps could identify specific information in the rejected message
What are the aims of the study?
What was the experimental method?
repeated measures design
What was the experimental design of experiment 1?
repeated measures design
What was the experimental design for experiment 2?
Independent measures design
What was the experimental design for experiment 3?
Whether the words were from the rejected message, shadowed message or no message at all (control)
What was the IV for experiment 1?
The number of words recognised from the shadowed message, rejected message and the control list
What was the DV for experiment 1?
Whether instructions began with the P's own names
What was the IV for experiment 2?
The number of times Ps reported hearing instructions in the rejected message
What was the DV for experiment 2?
- whether Ps heard messages with or without digits inserted
- whether Ps were told they would have to answer questions from the shadowed message or report all the digits they could remember
What were the IVs for experiment 3?
A tape recorded which was modified to produce 2 separate sound outputs
The volume of each earpiece was matched approximately
All of the passages were recorded before hand by one male speaker
What were the materials used?
Recall and recognition tests
Data collection method?
- undergraduate students and university researchers
- number for experiment 1 was unknown
- number for experiment 2 was 12
- number for experiment 3 was 28 (2 groups of 14)
- Ps remembered significantly more materials from the shadowed message than the rejected message or new material (p< 0.01)
- the 30 second delay can not be blamed for loss of material from the rejected message as this would have equally affected the shadowed message
Exp 1 results?
- most Ps ignore the instructions inserted into the passage they were supposed to be shadowing. This is because they thought that it was an attempt to distract them
- instructions in the rejected message were heard significantly more often when prefixed with a name than when not prefixed with a name (p<0.01)
Exp 2 results?
There was no significant difference in the number of digits recalled between when participants were told they would be asked to answer question from the shadowed message and when they Ps were told to listen for the digits
Exp 3 results?
- when a P directs his attention to a message from one ear and reject the message from the other year, the content of the rejected message usually cannot penetrate the attentional barrier
- personally relevant message, eg Person's own name, can penetrate the attentional barrier
- it is difficult to make neutral material appear important enough to penetrate the attentional barrier
✅high in control: volumes cannot act as extraneous variable
❌ lack ecological validity: dichotic listening in real life is different
Strengths and weaknesses of the research method?
✅ strength of quantitative data: comparisons easily made: number of time affective and non-affective instructions were heard
❌ weakness of only gaining quantitative data: Ps weren't able to to explain what they felt about the tasks
Evaluation of data types used
✅ informed consent
❌ no physical or psychological harm
❌ low Bcs does not represent everyday dichotic listening situations
✅ high external reliability: standardised procedures: timings, headphone volumes same
❌ low internal reliability: different experiences: 3 listener to instructions and switched ears, shadowing different messages
✅ representative because included both males and females: important as Welsh and Elliot found that gender differences in the strategies used by Ps dichotic listening differ
✅❌ sample size small. However selective attention skills of a small number of people reflect those of the majority of the population as eat and brain structure are largely universal
Representativeness of the sample?
✅ not ethnocentric: cognitive processes such as attention rely on the brain, structure of the brain should be universal
❌ ethnocentric: bilinguals might be better at dichotic listening tasks than monolinguals (Soveri et al.)
Hospital workers using patient's names when testing for consciousness in long-term coma patients
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