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A-Level Environmental Science: Conservation
Terms in this set (22)
Study of the relationship between living things and the environment.
An area and the conditions in which an organism lives.
Habitats of endangered animals
Many endangered animals are not directly under threat but their habitats are being destroyed e.g the rainforest.
Rationale for wildlife conservation
-Food, -education, -recreation, -morals, -gene pool, -ethics, -medical, -materials (wood, plant fibres, animals, oils, fuels).
What does human survival depend on?
The other species with which humans share planet Earth.
Many plant species are eligible e.g Potato bean of North America = protein source. Morama bean of Southern Africa (dry) = protein source & drought resistant.
Use of knowledge of adaptations of other species to improve design of manufactured items e.g wings for planes & spiderweb for airbag material.
Plant chemicals for medicines
Plants use alkaloids that, in controlled amounts, can be used as medicine for humans e.g poppies cultivated for painkillers (morphine, codeine) and willow tree bark (aspirin).
Animal testing: advantages
Prevents the loss of a more intelligent lifeform (humans).
Animal testing: disadvantages
Expensive to store and maintain animals. Products may have different effects on animals than humans.
Animal testing: ethical issues
Limit to how much pain can be caused to animals. Avoiding specific 'sacred' animals.
Animal testing: moral issues
Animals have no way to 'consent'. Cannot allow a person to die so that an animal can live. Animals can feel the pain.
Method of controlling pests (insects, mites, weeds, diseases) by using other organisms - relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms. Also typically involves active human management.
Biological control agents: predators
Ladybirds will feed on aphids
Biological control agents: parasitoids
Parasites will lay their eggs on/in the body of an insect host, which is then used as food by the internal developing larvae - the host is killed. e.g chalcid wasp is a parasitoid of the whitefly.
Biological control agents: pathogens
Pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses) kill or debilitate their host and are relatively host specific (specialists).
Total number of different genes present in all individuals in a population of a particular species.
Where crops were first domesticated and where wild varieties are still found.
Centre of origin
Geographical area where a group of organisms (either domesticated or wild) developed its distinctive properties.
Reason for locating origin of crop plants
Important to avoid genetic erosion and basic to plant breeding. Allows location of wild relatives, related species, and new genes (dominant genes can provide disease resistance).
Characteristics introduced from Crop Wild Relative species (CWR)
-disease resistance, -salt tolerance, -drought resistance, -high yield, - improved taste/appearance, -nutrient uptake.
Gene pool problems
-large populations does not always mean a large gene pool, -domestic species often produced from small number of ancestors.