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Anatomy and Physiology - Skeletal System
Terms in this set (69)
Types of bones?
Long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid
Include the bones of the lower limbs, eg. Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Humerus, Radius, Ulna - have a shaft known as the diaphysis and two expanded ends known as the epiphysis
Small, light, strong, cube shaped bones consisting of cancellous bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone
Thin, flattened and slightly curved, with a large surface area
Have complex shapes that fit no other categories
Have a specialised function, usually found within a tendon
Eg of Short bones?
Eg of flat bones?
Sternum, scapular, cranium
Irregular bones example?
Vertebrae of the spine
Embedded within a tendon, typically found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint, eg. Patella
The axial skeleton?
Skull - cranium and facial bones
Thoracic cage - sternum, robs
Vertebral column - 80 bones
The appendicular skeleton?
Upper limbs, lower limbs, shoulder girdle, pelvis - 126 bones
Good posture with the correct position of the three natural curves. When viewing spine from the front, it should be completely vertical
Excessive outward curve of the thoracic region reduction in a hunchback appearance. Often caused by bad posture, but can be due to deformity of the vertebrae
3 changes body experiences during exercise?
Heart rate increases, release of endorphins, stimulates growth of new blood vessels
Structure of the skeletal system?
Made up of bones, cartilage and joints, 206 bones, provides a framework that supports your muscles and skin and protects your internal organs
Abnormal curvature of the spine either to the left or right ( lateral curvature). Mostly occurs in the thoracic region. Often found in children. Not thought to be linked to bad posture, exact causes are unknown, seems to be inheritable
What are the 8 functions of the skeleton in sport?
Supporting framework, protection, attachment for skeletal muscle, source of blood cell production, store of minerals, leverage, weight bearing, reduce friction across a joint
How does the skeleton provide a supporting framework?
Bones in the body work together to give our body shape and provide a support network for the soft tissues in the body. When doing a squat lunge with bar, it is important to ensure e are safe and provide support for the soft tissues and offer more balance to the body
How does the body offer protection during sport?
Bones surround and protect vital organs and tissues. The brain is protected by the skull. When heading a ball the skull protects against damage to the brain. In hockey players use padding to protect themselves from getting injuries
How does the skeleton provide attachment for the skeletal muscle?
Parts of our skeleton provide a surface for the skeletal muscles to attach to which allows us to move. The tendons that attach muscles to our bones provide leverage. A muscle pulling on the bones act as levers so movement occurs at joints allowing us to walk. The type of movement is dependent on the type of muscles. Sprinting require this because we tell our arms to move, so it's voluntary control
How does the skeleton provide a source of blood cell production?
Our bones are not completely solid as this would make them to heavy and make it extremely difficult to move. Blood vessels feed the centre of bones and are stored as bone marrow inside the bones. Bone marrow inside of long bones constantly produce red and white blood cells. Large numbers of blood cells, especially red, die every minute.
How does the skeleton act as a store of minerals?
Bones act as a storage for minerals such as calcium. These are essential for bone growth and maintaining bone health. Minerals are released into the bloodstream when required hence balancing minerals in our body. Healthy bones are important in sport to insure we don't lack a mineral.
How does the skeleton provide leverage?
The bones in our skeleton can contract and expend to provide a lever system against muscle to create movement. Whilst kicking a ball, leverage offers more strength and power to the kick, meaning the ball with travel further
How does the skeleton provide weight bearing?
The bones in our body are very strong and will support the weight of the tissue and muscles. Large forces can be applied during sport, so the skeleton provides structural strength to prevent injury. Whilst doing a wall climb, this is important as all weight is on your hands
How does the skeleton reduce friction across a joint?
The skeleton contains many different types of joints. Synovial joints secrete fluid to prevent the bones from running together so reduce friction between bones. When sprinting many don't feel any pain in joint sites because of the synovial joints secreting fluid to prevent rubbing
Ball & socket - femur and pelvis
Hinge joint - talas, tibia, fibula
Condyloid - femur, tibia
Condyloid - ulna and radius
Gliding - talas, tibia and fibula
Gliding - tarsals, metatarsals, tibia, fibula
Pivot - atlas and axis
Hinge joint - humerus & scapula
Ball & socket - humerus, radius, ulna
Pivot - radius and ulna
Connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole. Constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement
What are the 3 types of joints?
Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Fixed- held together only by a ligament eg. Teeth at their bony socket, cranium, pelvis
Semi moveable - occurs where connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage eg. Vertebrae
Freely moveable - have a synovial capsule surrounding the whole joint, a synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid and cartilage which pads the ends of articulating bones
Types of synovial joints?
Hinged, pivot, ball & socket, saddle, condyloid, gliding
Hinged synovial joint?
Allows for flex job and extension movements eg. Elbow
Pivot synovial joint?
Allows rotation of one bone around another eg. Neck
Ball & socket synovial joint?
Allows for flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, internal and external rotation eg. Shoulder and hip
Saddle synovial joint?
Allows for flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction eg. Thumb CMC joint
Condyloid synovial joint?
Allows for flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction. Eg. Wrist MCP joint
Gliding synovial joint?
Allows for gliding movement eg. Inter carpal joints
Reducing the angle between the bones of a limb at a joint
Straightening a limb to increase the angle at the joint
Movement away from the vertical midline of the body
Movement towards the vertical midline of the body
An upward movement
Movement where the toes point downwards by straightening the ankle
Circular movement of a limb
Bending sideways movement
Bending the elbow while the arm is in front of your body
Straightening the arm at the elbow
Movement beyond normal anatomic position in a direction opposite to flexion
Horizontal abduction and adduction?
Movement bringing arm across your body ( flexion) and back again ( extension )
Circular movement that results in a conical action
Seals the joint, provides passive stability, provides active stability
Aids with movement when walking, running or stretching
Provides a smooth, lubricated surface
Makes synovial fluid which has a lubricating function
Connect bones to bones
Causes painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints. Exercise can help prevent due to it stretching and strengthening structures around the joint and ensures joints are healthy. Helps loses weight which also reduces risk. Gives joints a better range of motion.
Condition that weakens the bones. Makes bones more fragile, so increase risk of breaking bone. Resistance training strengthens muscles and build bones so reduces risk of osteoporosis
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