SEHS Ch 6 Measurement & Evaluation of Performance
Terms in this set (95)
Average of all data points. (Central tendency of the data).
Graphical representation of the variability of the data
What lies between +- 1 standard deviation.
What lies between +- 2 standard deviation.
Coefficient of Variation
The ratio of the SD to the mean expressed as a percentage.
A group of statistics used to determine if a significance difference exists between the means of two sets of data.
A relationship between the variables.
A substance that has no therapeutic effect.
The processing of assigning subjects to a control or an experimental group on a random basis.
A test carried out in the environment in which a product or device is to be used. Not as accurate as laboratory tests.
Advantages and Limitations to Field Test
Advantage: Large # can be tested,
Limitation: Monitor level of motivation
-May be maximal
- Ability to pace
A test carried out in a controlled environment.
Advantages and Limitations to Laboratory Test.
Limitation: To much $
- One at a time
Advantages and Limitations of Max Test.
Advantage: Measure max effort
Limitation: likely to stop before reaching max
- not for children or elders
Advantages and Limitations of Submax Test
Advantage: Can be tested for children and elders
Limitations: Large sources of errors.
Ability to perform specific activities
Health Related Fitness
An individual physical ability to maintain health and perform activities of daily living
Performance Related Fitness
An individual physical ability to perform in a specific sports.
Ability to take in, deliver and use oxygen for use by the aerobic or oxidative energy system.
Multistage Fitness Test (Pacier Test)
Advantages: Easy to score
-limited equipment and expertise
-large # can be tested
Limitations: Prediction based on performance
-Score known y participants
Cooper's 12 min Test
Advantages: Easy to score
-limited equipment and expertise
-large # can be tested
Limitation: Prediction based on performance
- protocol not progressive in nature, pacing being a key factor.
Harvard Step Test
Advantages: limited equipment and expertise
-test based on physiological finding (pacing and motivation will not affect the results)
Limitations: Prediction based on heart rate
-Heart rate needs to be measure accurate
a spread of scores around the mean
State why standard deviation is useful
Displays the consistency of each sample
used to determine if two sets of data are significantly different from each other.
graphical representation of variability of the data
Measuring the skills needed for a sport can see how well the athlete can maintain that skill when repeatedly doing it.
Checking if the instruments you're using in an experiment are working properly
if you repeated the test again are you likely to get similar results
Does the test actually test what is tests
a bunch of people are put into a group that doesn't get any special treatment for the experiment.
Why is it important to have an control group?
To see if your hypothesis correlates with the data collected and overcoming learning problems
People of various skill levels are put in different groups by random. This is to ensure that we don't favor one group over another.
Participants in the experiment don't know which group they are in. If the participants know what they are getting, it will defeat the purpose of the experiment
Double blind experiment
both the participants and the experimenters are unaware of who is in the experimental or control groups. This is to make sure that neither party influences the results.
A harmless substance given to the participants in the controlled group. The substance won't affect the person's performance during the experiment.
a questionnaire that makes sure the participant doesn't have any health issues that will put them in danger in the experiment
testing for a person's maximum ability. Used for people who are physically fit
For people who are afraid or aren't knowledgeable of pushing their limits. Good for children and the elderly
The relation of fat mass to fat free mass (bones, muscles etc)
ability to move through a full range of movement around a joint
ability to generate force using muscle(s)
ability of a muscle(s) to maintain force or power
The ability to change direction at speed with control
stability of body
the ability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently
duration between presentation of a stimulus and associated response
change of distance with respect to time when movement occurs
rate of doing work
Harvard Step Test
testing the participant on heart rate recovery after performing the task.
Cooper 12 minute run test
Participant run/walk as fast as they can in 12 minutes.
Multi-stage fitness test
AKA the Beep test. Participant runs increasingly faster in 20 meter shuttles until they're exhausted
Sit and reach test
Tests the flexibility of a person in the lower back and hamstring muscles.
Maximum push up test
Participant does as many push ups as they can with no time limit. This measures upper body strength and enduranc
Sit up test
Measure the strength and endurance of your stomach and hip-flexor muscles
Tests agility by having you run as quickly as possible through a series of cones placed in a certain way
Hand grip dynamometer
Measures the maximum strength of your hand and forearm using this machine
40 meter sprint test
The person being tested sprints 40 meters as fast as they can. Warm-ups and practice sprints should be done before test
Equation to calculate the if your is normal, overweight and obese (person's weight divided by their height squared).
study of measurements and proportions of the human body
Measures the mass per unit volume of a person's body using displacement
This test determines a person's balance. To test this the experimenter has the person stand on one foot with hands on their hips
tests hand eye coordination using a ball to throw against the wall and catching it with your opposite hand repeatedly
Measures hand eye coordination by dropping an object and having the person catch using their thumb and index finger
The use of artificial intelligence to measure and test an individual's skills
Standing Broad jump
Measures leg power. To do this test, you jump as far as you can.
Using vertical height jumps to test one's leg muscle strength
prepares your cardiovascular respiratory system to function more effectively when you are doing exercise. Increases your heart rate, body temperature and breathing rate
improves flexibility and lower the risk of injury
Helps resist pain and fatigue when doing any type of exercise you're doing. This will make you perform better during your exercises
improves your health and fitness. Strengthen relationships with friends and family.
improve a certain part of your fitness by increasingly placing requirements on the parts you need it most
If the training plan is terminated then fitness improvements will return to pre-training values. The effect of Detraining is much faster with muscle endurance in comparison to strength.
Pictorial scale of perceived exertion that measures effort (measured from 0-10)
The importance of study design
The important thing to see is that each stage eliminates potential problems, and therefore we need to use different methods to ensure that our experiments is well-designed. E.g inclusion of a control group, placebo, double blind experience.
Cardiorespiratory endurance training
This involves any training that is designed to improve the cardiovascular, respiratory or metabolic systems. E.g running
Cool down and stretching activities
Should include a warm down or cool down element. The cool down should involve a lowering of the intensity of the cardiorespiratory part of the training. Returning the body back to its resting state.
Can be done in order to try to improve range of movement and also reduce the chance of muscle injuries
It is exercice to enhance muscular strength and endurance. E.g pull ups, climbing
This is done for enjoyment when one is not working, and are usually social and inexpensive. Can include cardiovascular and resistance training.
The development in training should start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise.
Means that fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do.
Specificity (principles of training)
Means that any training must be matched to the needs of the sporting activity to improve fitness in the body parts the sport uses.
Means that it is important to mix your physical training routine and include different activities.
Training should be divided into a series of phases. Each phase can then target series of attributes to be developed within a designated period of time.
Correlation coefficient (r)
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
to show a strong correlation between 2 variables, r will be r > +0.8 or r < -0.8
coefficient of determination (r squared)
The percent of change in the dependent variable that can be attributed to the liner relationship between the 2 variables (independent and dependent). It is the square of the correlation coefficient (r) between X and Y multiplied by 100. It is expressed as a %.
paired t test
"is there a difference between the same group?"
unpaired t test
Different groups ex. trained vs. untrained
sample standard deviation
The square root of the sum of squared deviation about the sample mean divided by n - 1
population standard deviation
The square root of the sum of squared deviation about the population mean divided by N
The hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations.
The hypothesis which is accepted when the null hypothesis has been rejected. "There IS a significant difference..."
The probability of results of the experiment being attributed to chance. If p > 0.05 there is no significance (accept null hypothesis). If p < 0.05 there is significance (accept alternate hypothesis)