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Higher Biology KA 1.1 & 1.2
Terms in this set (42)
Enzyme that adds complementary DNA nucleotides onto the exposed 3' end of the new DNA strand which is forming during DNA replication.
Taq DNA polymerase
Heat-tolerant enzyme extracted from a extremophile bacteria which is used in PCR
DNA strand in the replication fork with an exposed 5' end that is replicated in fragments
DNA strand in the replication fork with an exposed 3' end that is replicated continuously
Enzyme that joins together replicated DNA fragments to create the lagging strand
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A technique used to make multiple copies of a DNA fragment using repeated cycles of heating and cooling called thermocycling.
Short complementary strands of nucleotides that bind to the 3' ends of each of the separated strands
The process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself. Happens at the start of every cell division during growth and repair.
DNA strand on which a complementary copy is made.
Practical applications of PCR
Forensics at a crime scene and paternity testing
Repeated copying of a DNA fragment during PCR
Short complementary strand of nucleotides that attaches to the 3' end of the exposed template DNA strand and allows DNA polymerase to operate.
PCR temperature phase 1
Heated to between 92oC and 98oC to denature the DNA causing the hydrogen bonds to break and the strands to separate
PCR temperature phase 2
Cooled to between 50oC and 65oC to allow complementary primers to bind to their specific target sequences on the exposed DNA strands.
PCR temperature phase 3
Heated to between 70oC and 80oC to allow only heat-tolerant DNA polymerase to operate and synthesise new strands from free DNA nucleotides
Repeated cycles of heating and cooling used during PCR
Y-shaped point that results when a DNA molecule is unwound and hydrogen bonds between bases are broken to start replication.
'Free' DNA nucleotides
Used to build the complementary strands on the exposed template strands
Happens on the leading strand of DNA. Requires one primer and DNA polymerase.
Happens on the lagging strand. Requires multiple primers, DNA polymerase and ligase.
DNA base that pairs with thymine (T)
The strands of a DNA molecule run in opposite directions
Part of a DNA nucleotide - either A, T, C or G (garage)
Structure that contains the genetic code arranged in sections called genes.
DNA base that pairs with guanine (G)
Part of a DNA nucleotide (house)
deoxyribonucleic acid; a molecule that holds the genetic code in living organisms
Double stranded helix
3D shape of a DNA molecule
Organism with a membrane bound nucleus and organelles. DNA in the form of linear chromosomes with circular chromosomes inside mitochondria / chloroplasts.
DNA base that pairs with cytosine (C)
Weak chemical link between complementary base pairs in DNA that holds the two strands together.
Simplest subunit of DNA consisting of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate and a base
Part of a DNA nucleotide (satellite).
Circular loop of DNA found in prokaryotes and yeast cells.
One of two strands in a DNA molecule made up of repeating deoxyribose sugars and phosphates
DNA base that pairs with adenine (A)
The end of a DNA strand with an exposed deoxyribose sugar ready for bonding
The end of a DNA strand with an exposed phosphate ready for bonding
DNA Base Pairing Rule
Adenine pairs with Thymine (A - T) Cytosine pairs with Guanine (C - G)
Unicellular organism with no distinct nucleus or membrane bound organelles. DNA in the form a single circular chromosome plus plasmids
Protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled to form linear chromosomes.
A section of a chromosome that carries the gene code for a specific protein
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