Psychology

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Terms in this set (...)

Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
Introspection
the examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes.
Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Behaviorism
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
Humanistic Psychology
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growth.
Cognition
the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
Sigmund Freud
The controversial ideas of this framed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity self-understanding.
Wilhelm Wundt
Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the university of Leipzig, Germany.
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Nature-Nurture issue
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
B.F Skinner
A leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.
Neuroscience
How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.
Evolutionary
How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes.
Psychodynamic
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
Behavioral
How we learn observable responses.
Social-cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Biopsychosogical approach
An integrated approach that incorporates biological,psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
Psychiatry
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy.
When and how did psychological science begin?
Psychological science had its modern beginning with the first psychological laboratory, founded in 1879 by German philosopher and physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, and from later work of other scholars from several disciplines and many countries.
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Random Sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Double-blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both of the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Placebo
a fake treatment, an inactive substance like sugar, distilled water, or saline solution -- can sometimes improve a patient's condition simply because the person has the expectation that it will be helpful.
Experimental group
is the group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested. One variable is tested at a time. The experimental group is compared to a control group, which does not receive the test variable. In this way, experimental groups are used to find answers in an experiment.
independent variable
experiment that is manipulated or changed. For example, in an experiment looking at the effects of studying on test scores, studying would be the independent variable.
Control group
is composed of participants who do not receive the experimental treatment. When conducting an experiment, these people are randomly selected to be in this group. They also closely resemble the participants who are in the experimental group, or the individuals who receive the treatment.
Dependent Variable
is the variable that is being measured in an experiment. For example, in a study looking at how tutoring impacts test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants' test scores.
Neuron
a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that carry incoming information from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Dendrite
a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
Axon
the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.
Myelin
a mixture of proteins and phospholipids forming a whitish insulating sheath around many nerve fibers, increasing the speed at which impulses are conducted.
Action potential
threshold in a neuron is the point of depolarization at which the neuron fires, transmitting information to another neuron. Psychologists use the concept of action potential threshold to explain how neurons send information to each other.
Synapse
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or the synaptic cleft.
Neurotransmitters
is a chemical messenger that carries, boosts, and modulates signals between neurons and other cells in the body. In most cases, a neurotransmitter is released from the axon terminal after an action potential has reached the synapse.
Nervous system
the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Central Nervous System
the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system
the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
Somatic Nervous System
deals with our voluntary control of muscles and our five senses.
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic Nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
Adrenal
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys.
Pituitary gland
the major endocrine gland. A pea-sized body attached to the base of the brain, the pituitary is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
Endocrine
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
is a recording of the electrical waves of activity that occur in the brain, and across its surface. Electrodes are placed on different areas of a person's scalp, filled with a conductive gel, and then plugged into a recording device.
Positron emission tomography
which is similar to the MRI, is a scanning method that enables psychologists and doctors to study the brain (or any other living tissue) without surgery. PET scans use radioactive glucose (instead of a strong magnetic field) to help study activity and locate structures in the body.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
is a brain imaging technique that detects magnetic changes in the brain's blood flow patterns.
Hindbrain
controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, and it also controls basic body functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, and whether one is awake or sleepy. The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
Medulla
is a section of the brain located in the brainstem which is responsible for automatic functions like breathing, blood pressure, circulation and heart functions, and digestion. It is also the area responsible for many reflexes like swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing.
Limbic System
a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring).
Amygdala
a roughly almond-shaped mass of gray matter inside each cerebral hemisphere, involved with the experiencing of emotions.
Hypothalamus
The area of the brain that secretes substances that influence pituitary and other gland function and is involved in the control of body temperature, hunger, thirst, and other processes that regulate body equilibrium.
Cerebral Cortex
is the most important part of our brain (at least in the field of psychology) because it is what makes us human. The cerebral cortex (sometimes referred to as called "gray matter", is actually densely packed neurons. Its the information processing center.
Frontal lobes
each of the paired lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behavior, learning, personality, and voluntary movement.
Pariental
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
Occiputal
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields.
Temporal Lobes
each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech.
Plasticity
The brains ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
Corpus Callosum
a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
What was William James' theory in psychology?
Functionalism
Functionalism
was a philosophy opposing the prevailing structuralism of psychology of the late 19th century. Edward Titchener, the main structuralist, gave psychology its first definition as a science of the study of mental experience, of consciousness, to be studied by trained introspection.
What is the theory in psychology that believes that "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"?
Gestalt Psychology
Gestalt Psychology
the study of perception and behavior from the standpoint of an individual's response to configurational wholes with stress on the uniformity of psychological and physiological events and rejection of analysis into discrete events of stimulus, percept, and response.
Who created the theory of behaviorism?
John Watson
What theory focuses on learned behaviors and was based on Pavlov's experiment?
Behaviorism
What was William James's area of specialization?
Functionalism
Which of the seven modern perspectives focuses on the way people act when they are alone vs when they're with family, friends, classmates, etc.?
Sociocultural Perspective
Which of the seven modern perspectives focuses on the part biological processes play on the mind?
Biopsychological Perspective
Which of the seven modern perspectives focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics that all humans share?
Evolutionary Perspective
Which of the seven modern perspectives focuses on people's abilities to direct their own lives, have free will, and strive for self-actualization?
Humanistic Perspective
Which of the seven modern perspectives stemmed from Watson's behaviorism but was taken over by BF Skinner?
Behavioral Perspective
Which of the seven modern perspectives stemmed from Freud's psychoanalysis?
Psychodynamic Perspective
What are some of the main goals of psychology?
Description, Explanation, Prediction, and Control
What is the measure of the relationship between two variables?
Correlation
All-or-none response
a neuron's reaction of either firing with a full-strength response or not firing.
Acetylcholine
A neurotransmitter involved in muscle movement, attention, arousal, memory, and emotion.

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