2.1 Skill characteristics and their impact on transfer and practice

Self paced skill
When the performer controls the start and the speed of the skill
Acronym for characteristics of skills
What are the characteristics of skills
Aesthetically Pleasing
A learned ability about a predetermined result with the minimum outlay of time, energy or both.
Open skill
A skill performed in an unpredictable environment
Closed Skill
A skill performed in predictable environments
Gross Skill
A skill that uses large muscle groups
Fine skills
A skill that uses smaller muscle groups.
Extrenally paced skill
When the performer has no control over the start and the speed of the skill
Discrete Skill
A skill that has a clear beginning and end
Serial skill
A skill that contains several discrete skills in order to make a more integrated movement
example of closed skill
basketball free throw
performing a shot putt
Example of an gross skill
Rugby Tackle using shoulder muscles
Quadriceps in a slide tackle
example of a fine skill
Throwing a dart
example of a self paced skill
Taking a penalty in football
example of an externally paced skill
marking an opponent in netball
continuous skill
a task in which the action is performed without any recognizable beginning or end
Example of a discrete skill
Tennis Serve
Example of a Continuous skill
What are the two ends of the organisation spectrum
High and Low
Low organised skill
A skill that is easily broken into sub routines
Example of low organisation skill
A swimming stroke because of the arm action, leg action and body position
High organised skill
A skill that is not easily broken into parts
Example of high organised skill
A football volley.
Simple skill
A skill that requires few decisions when being performed
Complex skill
A skill which requires a lot of focus and decision making to perform
The effect of learning and performance of one skill on the learning and performance of another
Positive Transfer
When the learning of one skill helps another skill
Negative Transfer
When the learning of one skill hinders the learning of another
Zero Transfer
When one skill has no impact on the learning of another
Bilateral Transfer
Learning of one skill is passed across the body from limb to limb
Example of positive transfer
Tennis and Squash
Example of negative transfer
Example of Zero tranfer
Example of bilateral tranfer
Transfer of learning
Between two tasks it can improve quality and the similarity between them.
3 ways for transfer of learning
-Skill to Skill
-Training to Game
-Theory to practice
Whole Practice
Practicing the skill in its entirety
Assessing the skill, identifying a weakness to practise, then putting the skill back together
Progressive part practice
Practising the first part of the skill then adding parts gradually. Sometimes called chaining.
Linking the sub routines of a task together in order to practice.
massed practice
No rest intervals
distributed practice
rest intervals between practice sessions
varied practice
Changing the practice type and the practice drills
Mental practice
Going over the action in the mind without physical movement
What are the 3 types of presentation
-Whole part whole
-Progressive parts
What are the 4 types of practices
-Massed Practice
-Distributed Practice
-Varied Practice
-Mental Practice
Whole is best used when skill is
-High Organised
Whole part whole is best used when skill is
Progressive part is best used when skill is
-Externally paced
-Low Organised
Massed Practice is best used when skill is
-Highly organised
Distributed Practice is best used when skill is
-Low organised
Varied Practice
-Externally Paced
Mental Practice is best used when skill is
Advantages of Whole presentation
-Keeps links between sub routines
-Develops a kinaesthetic feel
Advantages of Whole part whole
-Shows weakness
-Can correct eror
Advantages of progressive part practice
-Keeps links between part
-Reduces danger
-Reduces fatigue
-Focuses on weakness
Advantages of massed practice
- Forms motor programmes
-Increases fitness
-Enhances over learning
-Good for habitual responses
Advantages of distributed practice
-Allows recovery
-Less mental pressure
-Reduces danger
-Allows mental rehearsal and feedback
Advantages of varied practice
-Gives motivation
-Allows adaptation
Advantages of mental practice
- Improves reaction time
- Builds motor programmes
- Builds confidence
- Controls anxiety
Disadvantages of Whole presentation
-Too much information
-Not for beginners
Disadvantages of Whole part whole
-Time consuming
-Some not broken down easily
Disadvantages of Progressive part
Takes longer than other types of practice
Disadvantages of Massed practice
-No time for feedback
-Too much demand
Disadvantages of Distributed Practice
-time consuming
-negative transfer
Disadvantages of Varied Practice
- Time consuming
- Possibility of negative transfer
- Fatigue
- Too demanding
Disadvantages of mental practice
Must be correct
Environment must be calm
Example of whole practice
tennis serve
Example of whole-part-whole practice
Golf swing when performer has a poor grip
Example of progressive part practice
A dance routine
Example of Massed practice
Basketball player practicing free throw
Example of Distributed practice
A swimmer practicing stroke technique in training
Example of varied practice
Players practicing a football pass
Example of mental practice
A performer thinking about their trampolining routine