Terms in this set (43)
why is glucose a bad source of energy
it takes time to release energy
how many ATP molecules are released in aerobic respiration
where is energy stored in an ATP molecules
the bonds between the phosphates
what is the equation for the release of energy from atp
ATP + H2O = ADP + Pi + Ee
what type of reaction is required to release energy from atp
how can ATP be reformed
adding a Pi to the ADP
What is the equation to reform ATP
ADP + Pi + E=ATP +H2O
what enzyme is used to form ADP
What enzyme is used to form ATP
ATPase or ATP synthase
what are the 3 ways ATP can be reformed
photophosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation
what is photophosphorylation
in photosynthesis light is used to add a Pi to ADP
what is oxidative phosphorylation
in respiration within the mitochondria e- are transported releasing every to add to the Pi
what is substrate level phosphorylation
when a reaction has occured releasing enough energy to combine any nearby pi and ADP together
what is a molecule of ATP with 2 phosphates called?
name the 5 bases
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil
what is the structure of a nucleotide
pentose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base
how are the components of a nucleotide joined?
what is the bond between two mononucleatides
what are two mononucletides called
what bases does RNA have
A, C, G, U
what are the bonds between bases
why is DNA stable
1. the phosphodiester backbone protects the more
chemically reactive organic bases inside the double helix
2. many hydrogen bonds link the base pairs together, so it adds strength overall.
How many hydrogen bonds are between A and T?
how many hydrogen bonds are between c and G
what type of replication happens in dna
what does DNA helicase do
what does DNA polymerase do
does water have a high or a low specific heat capacity?
does water have a high or low latent heat of vaporisation?
the tendancy of molecules to stick together
what is adesion?
the tendancy of molecules to stick to other molecules
what causes water to be a universal solvent?
where is water needed?
hydrolysis reactions, for chemical reactions to take place in an aqueous medium, as a raw material in photosynthesis
what does water readily dissolve?
gases, wastes, inorganic ions, enzymes
what is the structure of a purine
double ring structure
what is the structure of a pyrimidine?
single ring structure
what bases are purine
A and G
what bases are primidine?
C, T and U
what is a nucleoside
nucleotide without the phosphate
what joins nucleosides together?
when two nucleosides bond where does the bond form
between the OH group on the acid and an OH group on carbon 5
when two nucleosides bond what is produced?
sugar and water