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Edexcel history: Whitechapel
"Describe two features" questions
Terms in this set (19)
Describe two features of accommodation for poorer people in the Whitechapel area. (4 marks)
Most people lived in crowded slum areas: these were called rockeries, characterised by unhygienic conditions and poor ventilation.
Overcrowded conditions: on average, people lived in homes that were one room big and housed entire families.
Describe two features of working conditions in the Whitechapel area. (4 marks)
Most people worked in the sweated trades: this involved making large quantities of goods like matches or shoes, worked for long hours.
Most people worked in sweatshops: they were small and cramped with little natural light.
Describe two features of the workhouse within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
Conditions were deliberately poor: this was to keep costs low, deter the undeserving poor and make the workhouse a last resort.
Strict rules: workers had to sleep and eat at certain times, whole families were separated and forbidden to talk to each other.
Describe two features of the significance of alcohol within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
It was a form of escapism: it was the only escape from their difficult lives so they therefore drank a lot.
Fairly affordable for all but the poorest: it was one of the few activities that they could take part in and enjoy.
Describe two features of immigration to Whitechapel. (4 marks)
Many Irish people came to Whitechapel: they settled in Whitechapel as it was near many different trades, like docks, so it was more likely they would find employment there.
Many Jewish people came to Whitechapel: this was to escape persecution in Russia under Alexander III.
Describe two features of politics within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
Anarchism became popular: a number of European anarchists moved to Whitechapel and spread their message in the local area.
Socialism became popular: the Social Democratic Foundation had a lot of support in Whitechapel, they campaigned for more equality and an ending to police brutality.
Describe two features of the police's organization within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
Home Secretary had control over policing in England and Wales: they controlled internal affairs in England, so had the authority to appoint the Police Commissioner in London.
The head of the Met Police was the Commissioner: in charge of strategic operations and developing policies for the force, the most famous commissioner of the period was Charles Warren.
Describe two features of the beat constable. (4 marks)
Lowest level of police officers in Whitechapel: expected to patrol the streets and question people suspected of committing crimes.
Strict daily routine: a beat constable in H Division would start their day marching with colleagues before patrolling the streets.
Describe two features of the Criminal Investigation Department. (4 marks)
Developed in 1877 following the failure of the Detective Department: founded by Charles Edward Howard Vincent to deal with serious crimes and observe and gather evidence.
CID detectives wore plain clothes: this made it easier to investigate crimes without being noticed and shadow suspects.
Describe two features of the attitudes towards H Division. (4marks)
Many people had a negative impression of them: poorer people saw H Division as aggressive in their approach, especially in strikes and protests where the poor campaigned for more rights.
Seen as ineffective: increase in attacks by violent gangs and Jack the Ripper murders made ordinary people feel unsafe, H Division seen as incapable of stopping violence.
Describe two features of the problems of police recruits. (4 marks)
Lacked knowledge of local area: 31% of new recruits came from outside London, had a limited understanding of the layout of the streets of Whitechapel.
Limited training: only two weeks of military drill exercises followed by one week "on the beat" with a more experienced constable.
Describe two features of the difficulties caused by prostitution within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
They moved around lodging houses regularly: this made it difficult for the police to keep track of them and what kind of activities they were taking part in.
Number of brothels was increasing: by 1888 there were 62 brothels and 1200 prostitutes, difficult for police to check all of these establishments and individuals.
Describe two features of the difficulties caused by alcohol within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
Easily available and affordable: gin houses and pubs on every corner, even the poorest could afford to drink large amounts in a day.
Drunkenness led to violence: many crimes were committed by alcoholics trying to get more money to drink, many domestic abuse cases had alcohol as a cause.
Describe two features of protection rackets within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
Demanded money from small business owners in their own communities: their shops were damaged if they refused to pay.
They attacked one another: there was large amounts of violence between Eastern European protection rackets in Whitechapel.
Describe two features of the developments in policing within Whitechapel. (4 marks)
Police made greater use of evidence from post-mortems: all of the Ripper victims had autopsies to find out clues about the murderer.
They started to follow a principle of careful observation: the constable had to stop a crime scene and the evidence in it from being disturbed until an inspector arrived, who made a careful note of the evidence.
Describe two features of the treatment of the Ripper story by the newspapers. (4 marks)
Sensationalist stories developed: newspapers went into depth about how victims were killed, deaths were linked to the Ripper even after the final Ripper murder.
Negative portrayal of police: they were filled with criticisms of Warren and regularly reported on cases of riots against the police over the Ripper murders.
Describe two features of the relationship between the Metropolitan and City of London police forces. (4 marks)
Cooperation before the Ripper murders: detectives from both forces worked well together, COL originally sent officers to help catch the Ripper.
Relationship broke down during the evening of the double murder: COL were angered by Warren scrubbing off anti-Semitic graffiti in their area which could have been used as evidence.
Describe two features of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee. (4 marks)
Set up in September 1988 following anger that the Ripper murders kept happening: they believed the police had failed as there was no reward for catching the killer.
Organized their own reward system: they offered a financial reward for catching the Ripper.
Describe two features of the improvements made following the Ripper murders. (4 marks)
Bertillon System: provided physical measurements and photographs of people, which were kept on file, to prevent reoffending.
Increased amount of communication methods: they were using telephone lines by the end of the 19th century.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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