Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Memory- revision final Kelly
Terms in this set (94)
a memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information
Visual Sensory Memory
Duration: <1 seconds
Capacity: <20 items
when your new post code stops you from being able to remember your old one
Measuring the capacity and duration of sensory memory
Array of letters flashed quickly on a screen
Participants asked to report as many as possible
On average recalled 4.5 letters of the 12.
The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory.
4 lists, acoustically similar and dissimilar, semantically similar and dissimilar
Either recalled immediately or after 20 minutes
STM: better at acoustically dissimilar
LTM: better at semantically dissimilar
Participants mix up letters that sound similar more than those that look similar.
short term memory
long term memory
How much information can be stored in the memory
7 +/- 2
Study on STM capacity.
Participants saw increasingly long lists of numbers or letters and had to recall them in the right order. Two-syllable letters or numbers were left out.
Capacity for numbers was 9, and for letters it was 7.
Concluded that STM capacity had a longer digit span for numbers than letters.
The length of time information can be held in the memory
Duration of STM
Peterson and Peterson (1959)
presented subjects with consonants (ex: "JRG") and prevented subjects from rehearsing them by forcing them to count backwards by 3's -- when rehearsal is impossible, stimuli remain in STM for 15-20 seconds
Duration of LTM
Bahrick et al (1975)
-face and name memory
-free recall, pic recall, name recognition, matching, picture cueing
-rank confidence 3-1
-w/in 15 yrs: 90% accuracy, 60% free recall accuracy
-after 48 yrs: 80%, 30%
-Limit: participant variability
Capacity of LTM
Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) theory of how memory is processed; consists of the sensory register, the short-term memory and the long-term memory.
Aim: to see the effect of free recall on a person's memory
Participants were given sets of words to remember and then asked to recall as many as possible
Participants were able to recall first few and last few but not ones in the middle
Primacy is a result of the first word being encoded and stored in long term memory, recency due to last words still encoded in short term memory
**supports multi stage model
Showed that the span of information held within STS is 7 items but that, through combining items into larger times in a process called chunking, the capacity can be increased.
British musician with 7-second memory due to damage to amygdala and hippocampus
A: Investigate the type of encoding which is preferred by LTM and STM
P: 4 word lists: acoustically similar, semantically similar, acoustically dissimilar and semantically dissimilar
Either recall list immediately or after a delay
F: In STM the similar words were remembered the least well- confused the words, in LTM those with similar meanings were remembered least well
C: Encoding is mainly semantic in LTM, encoding is mostly acoustic in STM
E: low eco validity, acoustic and semantic encodings aren't the only ones used, only 4 word lists
Shallice and Warrington (1970)
This study looked at patient KF, who suffered brain damage from a motorcycle accident. Although he had trouble remembering verbal information, his visual memory was unaffected by the accident. This provided support for the Working Memory Model.
the inability to retrieve memory from long-term storage
the theory that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember
old information interferes with the ability to recall new information.
new information interferes with the ability to recall old information.
proactive (interference) example
moving pens to a new drawer, and then repeatedly going to the old drawer by mistake
retroactive (interference) example
when your new post code stops you from being able to remember your new one
Analysed the findings from a number of studies and concluded that when participants have to learn a series of word lists, they do not learn the lists of words encountered later on as well as the lists of words they encountered earlier on.
If participants memorised 10 or more lists, then, after 24 hours, they remembered about 20% of what they had learned. If participants had only learned one list recall was over 70%
McGeoch and McDonald (1931)
Participants had to learn a list of 10 words until they could remember them with 100% accuracy. Then they learned a new list.
There were six groups of participants who had to learn a new list:
1.Synonyms - words with the same meanings as the originals
2.Antonyms - words with the opposite meanings to the originals
3.Words unrelated to the original ones
6.No new list (control group)
When the participants recalled the original lists of words, their performance depended on the nature of the second list.
The group with the worst performance was the synonyms.
When they were given very different material, the mean number of items recalled increased.
Baddeley and Hitch (1977)
Asked rugby players to recall the names of teams they had played so far that season, week by week.
Accurate recall did not depend on how long ago the match took place.
More important was the number of games played in the meantime. This shows that interference can apply in everyday situations.
a form of forgetting. it occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access memory. the memory is available but not accessible unless as suitable cue is provided.
A trigger of information that allows us to access a memory. Such cues may be meaningful or indirectly linked by being encoded at the time of learning. For example, external or internal.
encoding specificity principle
the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it
context dependent forgetting
external or environmental cues such as weather or location.
state dependent forgetting
internal cues such as mood, exercising or being drunk.
Tulving and Pearlstone (1966)
48 words, one set had categories, the other did not
free recall (recall the words) 40% cued recall (recall the words with learning context) 70%
Godden and Baddeley (1975)
Researches using 18 divers, 36 unrelated words. 4 conditions to learn and recall: DD, DW, WW, WD.
Easier to recall in same place.
Goodwin et al (1969)
Carried out a study into cue-dependent forgetting with male medical students.
It took place over 2 days.
Day one was for training and learning of tasks, and day two was for memory testing.
Some participants were drunk on day one and some on day two.
This created four conditions:
1.Learn drunk and recall drunk
2.Learn drunk and recall sober
3.Learn sober and recall sober
4.Learn sober and recall drunk
Conditions 1 and 3 had the best recall due to the state dependent cues being the same.
Godden and Baddeley (1980)
replicated their underwater experiment using a recognition test instead of a recall test. There was no context-dependent effect. Performance was the same in all four conditions whether environmental contexts for learning were matched or not. This limits retrieval failure as an explanation for forgetting because the presence or absence of cues only affects memory when you test recall rather than recognition.
Argued that different contexts have to be very different indeed before an effect is seen. Learning something in one room and recalling in another is unlikely to result in much forgetting because the environments are not different enough. So real life applications of retrieval failure due to contextual cues doesn't actually explain much forgetting.
The working memory model
An explanation of the memory used when working on a task. Each store is qualitatively different.
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Working memory model
part of Baddeley's model of working memory that oversees slave systems: VISUOSPATIAL SKETCHPAD, PHONOLOGICAL LOOP, and EPISODIC BUFFER. Responsible for shifting and dividing attention
the part of working memory that holds and processes verbal and auditory information
the part of the phonological loop involved in the active refreshing of information in the phonological store
Primary acoustic store
Part of the phonological loop which stores words heard
Visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSS)
The component of the WMM that processes visual and spatial information in a mental space often called our 'inner eye'.
Part of the visuo-spatial sketchpad that stores information about form and colour
Stores information about the physical relationship of items (part of the visuo-spatial sketchpad)
A component of working memory where information in working memory interacts with information in long term memory (eg. relating information you are processing to a previous memory)
Hitch and Baddeley (1976)
Dual task experiment
They asked participants to carry out a reasoning task of deciding whether the statement about the letter pair of was true or false.
They simultaneously did either condition A, B, C or D:
A) Participants said 'the, the, the' repeatedly.
B) Participants said random digits out loud.
C) Participants repeated '1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6' out loud
D )Participants did not have an additional task
The reasoning task used the central executive memory system in the working memory model.
Participants were slower at completing the reasoning task when they were completing condition B, as it also required the central executive's attention.
Baddeley et al (1975)
Study on WMM.
Participants saw a series of a list of words which appeared on the screen for a short time. They were then asked to recall those words.
Participants found it more difficult recalling longer words that shorter words.
AP repeats words in your head - capacity of two seconds. Longer words max out the capacity.
Supports WMM - shows there are separate stores in STM
Paulesu et al (1993)
Evidence that the phonological loop comprises of two subsystems comes from scanning techniques which monitor blood flow in the brain when participants are carrying out specific tasks.
Participants were required to either store a series of letters or mentally rehearse the sounds of letters.
While they were carrying out these tasks, their blood flow in their brain was monitored using positron emission tomography (PET scan)
The two gave quiet different patterns of blood flow in the brain.
The rehearsal of sounds increased blood flow in the Broca's area.
Letter memory task was associated with Wernicke's area.
This supports the idea that the phonological loop comprises of 2 components, one that stores sounds (primary acoustic store) and one that is capable of rehearsal (articulatory loop) therefore supports the WMM theory that the STM has multiple components.
Shallice and Warrington (1970)
The case study of patient KF who had suffered brain damage due to a motorcycle accident which impaired his STM, mainly verbal information - his memory for visual information was largely unaffected.
This cannot bet explained in term of a unitary STM. However, it can be explained in terms of the multi-component model.
Enslinger and Damasio (1985)
Studied EVR, who had a tumour removed. He performed well on tests requiring reasoning, which suggested his central executive was intact; however, he had poor decision-making skills (he would spend hours deciding what to eat). This suggests the central executive was not wholly intact.
the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
memory of knowledge that can be called forth consciously as needed
retention independent of conscious recollection
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
testimony by eyewitnesses to a crime about what they saw during commission of the crime
a question that implies that one answer would be better than another
any information that 'leads' you into giving a particular response, as opposed to a necessarily accurate response.
A conversation between co-witnesses or an interviewer and an eyewitness after a crime has taken place which may contaminate a witness' memory for the event
an emotion characterised by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure.
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
A: Find out if questions asked subsequent to an event can cause a reconstruction in one's memory
P: 7 films showed, P's filled out questionnaire after each and gave an account of each. 1 Q. asked about the vehicle's speed using one of these words: hit, smashed, collided, bumped, contacted
F: smashed had an avg. speed estimate of 40.8 and contacted 31.8 (lowest)
C: Form of a question can markedly and systematically affect a witness' answer to the Q. - causes a change in the subject's memory representation of the accident
E: large sample size, BUT students used (non-representative), Lab, non-traumatic, non-generalisable, easy to replicate
SO: suggests memory from traumatic events is unreliable and can be altered by misleading info.
(% yes broken glass) smashed
(% yes broken glass) hit
(% yes broken glass) control
Gabbert et al (2003)
*each participant watched a video of the same crime, but from different angles
*participants then discussed what they had seen, before individually completing a recall test.
* 71% of participants incorrectly recalled aspects of the event they couldn't have seen.
*0% of the control group had any incorrect information
Johnson and Scott (1976)/Loftus et al (1987)
-they led participants to believe they were going to be part of a lab study.
-while seated in a waiting room participants heard an argument next door.
-in the 'low anxiety' condition a man walked though the door carrying a greasy pen.
-in the 'high anxiety' group saw a man with a bloody knife.
-49% of the 'low anxiety' group identified the man and -33% of the 'high anxiety' group identified the man.
Yullie and Cutshall (1986)
A: investigate the level of anxieties effect on real life ewt
P: conducted a field study of a shooting in Vancouver. 13/21 witnesses agreed to take part. interviews taken 4/5 months later were compared with original police interviews.
F: accuracy had hardly changed
88% in stressed group
75% in less stressed group
C: anxiety improves memory
inverted U-shaped relation between arousal on the one hand and mood and performance on the other
Found that lower levels of anxiety did produce lower levels of recall accuracy. Recall accuracy increases with anxiety up to an optimal point. A drastic decline in accuracy is seen when an eye witness experiences more anxiety than the optimal point.
Conducted a study using scissors, a handgun, a wallet or raw chicken as hand held items in a hairdressing salon. EWT accuracy was poorer in the unusual conditions suggesting weapon focus effect is due to unusualness rather than anxiety. Therefore it could be unrelated to anxiety studies.
Fisher and Geiselman (1992)
(CI S1) Report Everything
The interviewer encourages the witness to report all details about the event, even though these details may seem unimportant.
(CI S2) context reinstatement
a way of improving retrieval by re-creating the state of mind that accompanied the initial learning
(CI S3) Recall in reverse order
The witness is asked to describe the scene in a different chronological order e.g. from the end to the beginning.
(CI S4) Recall from a different perspective
it encourages witnesses to view the scene as others present may have see it, for example, as other witnesses, the victim or the perpetrator would have seen the incident.
Kohnken et al (1999)
Carried out a meta-analysis of 53 other studies and found that CI could elicit an average of 34% more detail than the standard interview.
This supports Geiselman and Fisher.
Milne and Bull (2002)
Study on the CI.
Found that the 'report everything' and 'context reinstatement' aspects of the CI were key techniques in gaining accurate, detailed recall.
Supports CI as it shows some elements of it can be used to improve the accuracy of the information recalled.
Geiselman and Fisher (1985)
A: test CIT
P: 240 pts water a vid of a store robbery. 120 were interviewed in the standard way, 240 with CIT.
F: CIT group recalled 35% more facts
C: CIT is more effective
Geiselman and Fisher (1988)
A: test CIT
P: real witnesses by 16 detectives, 7 were trained in CIT. interviews were filmed and analysed by a group at Uni Cali who were blind to conditions
F: 63% more information from CIT
C: does seem to work, more info is gathered
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Sets with similar terms
Cognitive Psych Exam 2
Cognitive Psychology--- Chapter 5
Psychology Chapter 7
Chapter 5: Test Yourself Review Questions
Other sets by this creator
SZ Psychology AQA
Business Models and Theorists- Final
Bottom-approach Psy (Kelly)
Business- paper 2
Other Quizlet sets
FL-NESINC OFFICIAL PDE PRACTICE TEST