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Terms in this set (105)
Why is adrenaline given?
Life threatening asthma
How does adrenaline work?
Acts on alpha and beta adrenergic reactions
Relaxes smooth muscle of the bronchi
Why is amioderone given?
Shockable rhythm cardia arrest
What is the dosage of adrenaline?
1mg in 1 ml
1mg in 10 ml
How does amiodarone work?
Prolongs cardiac action potential
Non-competitive alpha and beta adrenergic inhibitor
Blocks sodium and potassium channels in cardiac muscle
What is the dosage of amiodarione?
300 milligrams in 10ml and repeat dose of 150 milligrams in 10 ml
Why is aspirin given?
ECG evidence suggesting Myocardial infarction
How does aspirin work?
What is the dosage of aspirin?
300 milligram tablet form
Why is atropine given?
Low systolic blood pressure
How does atropine work?
Bind and inhibits muscadine acetylcholine receptors
What is the dosage of atropine?
600mg with repeat dose of 600mg
Why is benzylpenicillin given?
Suspected meningococcal disease
How dose benzylpenicillin work?
Binds to specific penicillin-binding inside bacterial cell walls
What is the dosage of benzylpenicillin?
1.2 grams IM
Why is chlorphenamine given?
Severe anaphylactic reaction
Reaction causing discomfort
How does chlorphenamine work?
Bind to histamine H1 receptors
What is the dosage of chlorphenamine?
IV= 10 milligrams
Oral= 4 milligrams
Why is clopidogrel given?
How does clopidogrel work?
Prevents binding of adenosine diphosphate to its platelet receptor
What is the dosage of clopidogrel?
Given with aspirin
Why is codeine given?
Mild to moderate pain if paracetamol and ibuprofen is ineffective
How does codeine work?
Positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission
What is the dosage of codeine?
Why is dexamethasone given?
Moderate to severe croup
How does dexamethasone work?
What is the dosage of dexamethasone?
Why is diazepam given?
Prolonged or repeat convulsions who are currently convulsing
How does diazepam work?
Binds to nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep
What is the dosage of diazepam?
Rectal= 20 milligrams with 10 milligram repeat dose
IV/IO= 10 milligram with 10 milligram repeat dose
Why is entonox given?
Moderate to severe pain
How does entonox work?
Induces opioid peptide release in the brain stem
What is the dosage of entonox?
Full effect= 5-10 minutes
Why is furosemide given?
Pulmonary oedema secondary to left ventricular failure
How does furosemide work?
Inhibits water reabsoprtion
Competitive inhibitor at chloride binding sites
What is the dosage of furosemide?
40 milligrams IV
Why is glucagon given?
Oral glucose not possible
How does glucagon work?
Binds with glucagon receptors
Converts glucagon to glucose in the liver
What is the dosage of glucagon?
1 milligram IM
Why is glucose 10% given?
Oral glucose not possible- unconscious patients
How does glucose 10% work?
Enter the energy releasing phase
Signs molecules to control glucose and energy homeostasis
What is the dosage of glucose 10%?
10g with repeat dose of 10g
Why is glyceryl trinitrate given? (GTN)
Cardiac chest pain due to angina or MI
Acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
How does GTN work?
Converted to nitric acid
Dilation of coronary arteries and reduces blood pressure
What is the dosage of GTN?
1-2 sprays with repeat dose of 1-2 sprays
Why is heparin given?
How does heparin work?
Binds reversible to anti-thrombin and anticoagulant
What is the dosage of heparin?
5000 units in 1ml
Why is hydrocortisone given?
Severe/life threatening asthma
How does hydrocortisone work?
Binds to cytosolic glucocorticoid receptors
Restore blood pressure
What is the dosage of hydrocortisone?
Asthma= 100 milligrams
Anaphylaxis= 200 milligrams
Why is ibuprofen given?
Relief of mild or moderate pain
Soft tissue damage
How does ibuprofen work?
Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory
What is the dosage of ibuprofen?
400 milligrams with 400 milligrams repeat dose
Why is ipratropium bromide given?
Acute severe or life threatening asthma
Unresponsive to salbutamol
How does ipratropium bromide work?
Blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors
What is the dosage of ipratropium bromide?
500 micro grams
Why is loratadine given?
How does loratadine work?
Competes with free histamine and exhibits specific H1 antagonistic activity
What is the dosage of loratadine?
Why is metoclopramide given?
How does metoclopramide work?
Inhibits gastric smooth muscle relaxation
What is the dosage of metoclopramide?
Why is midazolam given?
Convulsions lasting longer than 5 minutes or still fitting
3 or more focal/generalised convulsions in 1 hour
How does midazolam work?
Inhibits neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid
What is the dosage of midazolam?
2 milligrams with repeat dose of 2 milligrams
Maximum dose= IV- 10 milligrams, Buccal- 20 milligrams
Why is misoprostal given?
Postpartum haemorrhage within 24 hours of delivery
Miscarriage with life threatening haemorrhage
How does misoprostal given?
Inhibit gastric acid secretion
What is the dosage of misoprostal?
800 micro grams (4 tablets)
Why is morphine sulphate given?
MI, Severe pain
How does morphine sulphate work?
Acts on mu-opioid receptors
Binds to and inhibits GABA inhibitor
What is the dosage of morphine sulphate?
IV= 10 milligrams with repeat dose of 10 milligrams
Oral= 20 milligrams with repeat dose of 20 milligrams
Why is naloxone hydrochloride given?
How does naloxone hydrochloride work?
Antagonises the opioid affects by competing for the same receptors sites
What is the dosage of naloxone hydrochloride?
400 micrograms with repeat dose of 400 micrograms
IV or IM (max dose= 400 microgram)
Why is ondansetron given?
Prevention and treatment of opiate-induced nausea/vomiting
How does ondansetron work?
Selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist
What is the dosage of ondanstron?
Why is oxygen given?
Illness requiring high level/moderate oxygen
How does oxygen work?
Increases the arterial pressure of oxygen
What is the dosage of oxygen?
Dependant on oxygen saturation
Why is paracetamol given?
Relief of mild to moderate pain
How does paracetamol work?
Increases pain threshold by inhibiting cyclooxygenase
What is the dosage of paracetamol?
Tablets= 500 milligrams to 1 gram
IV= 1 gram
Why is reteplase given?
Acute STEMI with 12 hours of symptom onset
How does reteplase work
Binds to fibrin rich clots
What is the dosage of reteplase?
10 units with repeat dose of 10 units
Why is salbutamol given?
Exacerbation of COPD
How does salbutamol work?
Stimulated beta(2) adrenergic receptors in the lungs
What is the dosage of salbutamol?
5 milligrams with repeat dose of 5 milligrams
COPD= only on for 6 minutes at 6 litres
Why is sodium chloride given?
Limb crushing injury
How does sodium chloride work?
Control extracellular volume and blood pressure outside of cells
What is the dosage of sodium chloride?
Medical emergency= 250ml with repeat dose of 250ml with maximum of 1 litre
Sepsis= 500ml with repeat dose of 500ml with maximum dose of 2 litres
Haemorrhage= 250ml with repeat dose of 250ml with maximum dose of 2 litres
Flush= 5ml (cardiac arrest= 20ml, glucose= 10ml)
Why is syntometrine given?
Post partum haemorrhage within 24 hours of delivery
Miscarriage with life-threatening bleeding
How does syntometrine work?
Alpha-adrenergic dopamine and serotonin receptors agonist
What is the dosage of syntometrine?
500 micrograms with oxytocin 5 units
Why is tenecteplase given?
Acute STEMI within 6 hours of symptom onset
How dose tenecteplase work?
Binds to fibrin rick clots
What is the dosage of tenecteplase?
Why is tetracaine 4% given?
Venepuncture (cannulation) may be required
How does tetracaine 4% work?
Ester-type anaesthetic= blocking sodium ion channels locally
What is the dosage of tetracaine 4%?
Why is tranexamic acid given?
How does tranexamic acid work?
Competitively inhibit activation of plasminogen
What is the dosage of tranexamic acid?
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