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BTEC Applied Science - Mid-Topic assessment revision - Periodic table, Bonding, Electronegativity, Intermolecular forces
Terms in this set (48)
another name for a charged particle (when an atom loses or gains electrons)
The strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions (positive ion and negative ion)
The strong electrostatic attraction between positive nucleii and the shared pair of electrons
The strong electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and the sea of free electrons
atoms joined by covalent bonds
Free (delocalised) electrons
electrons that have been lost from a metal atom and do not get transferred to another atom, they are free to move throughout the whole structure and carry electrical charge
Created when a metal atom loses an electron - also known as a cation
MgCl2 (Mg2+ Cl- Cl-)
Chemical formula for magnesium chloride
Na2O (Na+ Na+ O2-)
Chemical formula for sodium oxide
Dot and cross diagram for calcium chloride
Dot and cross diagram for carbon dioxide
Created when a non-metal gains an electron - also known as an anion -
another name for a positive ion
another name for a negative ion
Dot and cross diagram for ionic bond
When drawn includes square brackets, a full outer electron shell and a positive and negatively charged ion
Dot and cross diagram for covalent bond
When drawn includes overlapping circles, the number of electrons an atom needs is the number of electrons that they share
Malleable and ductile
Metal atoms are arranged in layers, the layers can slide, this makes metals...
Good conductors of electricity
Sea of free/delocalised electrons are free to move and carry electric charge, this makes metals...
High melting points
When the attraction between atoms/ions is strong, they require a lot of energy to break, substances have...
Low boiling points
When intermolecular forces are weak, they don't require much energy to break so simple covalent molecules have...
Higher boiling points
When intermolecular forces are stronger (hydrogen bonding) or the molecules are larger, the intermolecular forces require more energy to break so simple covalent molecules have...
Bonding across a period
Group 1-3 = ionic bonding with group 5-7 or metallic bonding by themselves
Group 4 = covalent bonding
Group 5-7 = covalent bonding to make simple covalent molecules or with group 4-7 atoms, ionic bonding with groups 1-3
The weak attraction between molecules, crreated by dipole-dipole attractions
The ability of an atom within a molecule to attract the shared pair of electrons
Temporary dipole-induced dipole
intermolecular force when the atoms in a molecule have an equal distribution of protons and electrons (equal electronegativity)
Permanent dipole - dipole
intermolecular force when the atoms in a molecule have an uneven distribution of protons and electrons (unequal electronegativity)
intermolecular force when there is a permenant dipole attraction but when there is a very large difference in electronegativity in the molecule e.g. hydrogen and oxygen, fluorine or nitrogen
Number of protons
Also tells number of electrons
S, D, P
Blocks in the periodic table, also known as sub-shells
Number of electrons in the S sub-shell
Number of electrons in the P sub-shell
Number of electrons in the D sub-shell
On their own
Electrons prefer to occupy orbitals...
Block of the periodic table that contains groups 1+2, H and He
Block of the periodic table that contains the transition metals
Block of the periodic table that contains groups 3-8
Which element has this electron configuration, 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2?
Which element has this electron configuration, 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5?
2s2 2p4 - 2 electrons in the s orbital, 4 electrons in the p orbital.
Electrons fill from the lowest energy orbital first, the s orbital, then singularly in the p orbital first, then double up.
Explain the arrangement of the electrons in the second energy level oxygen
Which period is this element in, 1s2 2s2 2p5?
Which block in the periodic table is this element in, Which period is this element in, 1s2 2s2 2p5?
Chloride, Oxide, Nitride
Which negative ions have this electron configuration, 1s2 2s2 2p6?
Which block in the periodic table is this element in, 1s2 2s2?
Which period is this element in, 1s1?
Which element has this electron configuration, 1s1?
The highest energy electron in carbon is in a p orbital (2p4)
Why is Carbon found in the p block?
The highest energy electron in lithium is in an s orbital (2s1)
Why is Lithium found in the s block?
In order of increasing atomic number.
Elements are placed in groups with elements with similar chemical and physical properties and with the same number of electrons on their outer shells.
How is the periodic table arranged?
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