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Ch.9 Economic developments 1812 - 1832
Terms in this set (22)
- Industrialisation was regional not national so changes occurred in some places and not others.
What was the key problem regarding economic growth in industry?
- Main source of energy for industry
- Therefore of coal production was rising there was the idea that industry was expanding.
- Between 1815 and 1830 coal production rose from around 16million to just under 30million tons.
- About half the coal produced was used in the iron industry.
What was the significance of coal production?
- figures suggest production of pig iron doubled.
- at the beginning of the century it took 8 tons of coal to produce 1 ton of pig iron, by 1830 it only took 3.5 tons of coal to produce 1 ton of pig iron. This suggests production in the Iron industry was becoming more efficient.
How did the iron industry expand and improve between 1815 and 1830?
- imports of raw cotton and exports of manufactured cotton increased.
- According to Williams and Ramsden by the 1830's an estimated 30% of the industrial workforce was engaged in the cotton industry and 70% of all British exports were textiles and raw cottons accounted for almost 1/5 of Britain's imports.
How did cotton production expand between 1815 and 1830?
- In 1820 66,700 tons of ship were built and registered in Britain. By 1830 this had increased to 75,500.
- However the first steam ship was not launched until 1838.
How was the growth of the export market reflected in the development of the shipbuilding industry?
- More factories were powered by steam than water.
What role did steam power have in developing industry?
- There was an increasing variety of products available for the home market and for export abroad.
- Pottery and China were increasing in demand.
- The emerging middle-classes particularly contributed to consumerism as they had new disposable income and new homes in the outskirts of towns to furnish and equip.
Why can the mid-19th century be seen as the start of consumerism?
- The end of the Napoleonic Wars meant sanctions on trading were lifted.
- During the 1820's trade received an impetus from Huskisson's free trade measures.
How was trading boosted between 1815 and 1830?
1811 - 12million
1831 - 16.3million
- The rate of growth was higher in industrial areas then rural areas.
How did the population increase between 1811 and 1831?
- It emphasised the distinctions between the emerging industrial workforce and the middle classes.
- Working class discontent from which emerged new social groupings.
How did industrialisation bring new political pressures?
- Wider use of the power loom (Cartwrights steam driven wooden invention of 1789 was clumsy and inefficient but it could produce large quantities of cloth under one factory roof.)
1822 - Richard Roberts cast-iron power loom was an improvement on Cartwrights power loom. It was used extensively and revolutionised cloth production.
- In 1803 there were 2,400 power looms in operation and by 1833 this had risen to about 100,000.
What were the key developments in the cotton industry?
1828 - hot-air blast furnace developed by James Beaumont Neilson meant a better quality of iron could be obtained and raw coal could be used instead of coke making the process cheaper and more efficient.
What key developments were there in the iron industry?
- Coal mines remained relatively small and dangerous places to work.
- Coal was still cut by hand using pickaxes
- The biggest killer in coal mines was methane gas.
- 1813 Sir Humphrey Davy devised a safety lamp where gauze was put around the naked flame to prevent an explosion.
- An air pump was also designed to help ventilation.
- However little was done to improve safety and men, women and children were employed to meet the increasing demand for coal.
How much progress was there in key developments in the coal industry?
- efficiency of the steam engine was improved.
- 1812 puffing billy was operating in tyneside colliery by William Hedley. It was a more efficient method for moving coal from pit heads to factories and other markets.
- George Stephenson is credited with delivering the beginnings of a modern railway system.
- 1825 Stockton to Darlington
- 1830 first passenger like Liverpool-Manchester.
- Developments kept the economy moving by providing jobs, increasing demand for coal and improving efficiency in the transport of goods and people.
What developments where there in railways up to 1832?
- Large tenant farms set up as businesses hiring agricultural labourers for seasonal work and producing goods for a commercial market.
- Enclosure Acts (passed through the wars with France and into the 20's)
- Rent for enclosed land was higher as it was more valuable as crops have a higher yield in enclosed land, there was also less wastage if land and more control over soil fertilisation.
- Crop Rotation (1820's the most popular system being the Norfolk system) alternated produce of clover and turnips with barley and wheat. The clover and turnips returned goodness to the soil and overcame the problem of crop exhaustion.
- Mixed farming (arable and livestock on the same farm)
- Arable farming provided farmers with security when crop failed.
- The War stimulated agriculture as wheat prices rose but demand was high due to the rising population.
What developments were there in agriculture up to 1832?
- demand fell and the price of wheat dropped and so the cultivation of so much land no longer made sense.
- war time trade restrictions ended allowing cheap grain imports.
- Tenant farmers who took on long leases during the war saw their profits fall and responded by cutting wages and jobs.
- While the Corn Laws helped, they didn't protect farmers form the effects of depression in agriculture in the years after the war - There were constant price fluctuations even in seasons of good harvest.
- Landowners who had payed large sums to pay for enclosure, new farm buildings and drainage schemes found themselves in overwhelming debt.
- There were many farming bankruptcies in the 1820's.
- Concerns about rural depopulation as many labourers moved to industrial centres however there was never a shortage of labour on the land due to the increasing population.
How did the end of the Wars with France negatively impact agriculture?
- Innovation was slow as it would occur in one region and it might take years before it would be taken up in another.
E.g the threshing machine developed by Andrew Meikle in 1778 was not in general use across the country until the 1830's. When the machines were brought onto land labourers feared they attacked their jobs and so destroyed them.
To what extent was there a lack of uniformity in agricultural change?
- Lassiez Faire - The Government would not regulate wages or prices instead prices would naturally settle at a level most efficient for the market - essentially the economy functioned on the principle of supply and demand.
- However this approach was inconsistent as can be seen by the introduction of the Corn Laws.
- Active economic policy of free trade in the 1820's and a rejection of mercantilism. The budgets of 1824 and 1825 were the first to apply the principles of fair trade and were principally the work of Huskisson.
- Custom duties were lowered on raw materials used in the textiles and metal industries.
- Prohibitions on manufactured goods entering Britain were abolished and protective duties reduced. This threatened the British silk industry.
- Raw wool could be exported for the first time.
- 1823 Reciprocity Act encouraged trade treaties with other countries on the basis of mutual tariff reductions.
- Huskisson modified the navigation code which got rid of anachronistic restrictions on trading on foreign ships but retaining the condition that trade within the British Empire was to be carried out in British ships.
What government policies were introduced to increase trade and prosperity up to 1832?
- They brought lower prices in manufactured goods and increased the volume of British exports and shipping.
- They reduced smuggling
- They policies took Britain decisively in the direction of free trade
To what extent did government policy stimulate industry?
- The commercial upturn ended and the optimism of the previous years vanished.
- Banks failed and businesses went bankrupt.
Why was there criticism of Huskissons free trade and Liverpool's governments economic policies after 1825?
- Liverpool blamed the spirit of speculation.
- Bank Act 1826 made it legal for banks other than the Bank of England to operate as joint-stock banks.
- They could issue nots and had more robust foundation then the small private banks which had quickly gone to the wall in the crisis.
How did the government respond to criticism?
- a limited liability company engaged in banking as its trade.
- It's founded in subscribers/shareholders whose liability is limited to the amount of money they subscribe, if the bank fails they lose their subscription but no more.
What were joint stock banks?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch.10 Social developments
C.11 Pressure for Change
Section 1 - Key Dates
C.12 Greater Democracy
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