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Ch.10 Social developments
Terms in this set (13)
- Brought social turmoil and widespread unemployment.
- Migration to industrial towns disturbed traditional habits and customs in small communities.
- Some rural areas were transformed into industrial landscapes with smoking chimneys and blast furnaces creating and 'alien' skyline.
- The constant noise of machinery disturbed the tranquility of the countryside.
- Rows of hastily constructed houses and tenement blocks were built in towns to provide accommodation for the industrial workforce and became the slum dwellings of the future.
How did industrialisation effect Britain socially?
- Large numbers of people crowded together in towns and cities.
- The vast majority of the population lived in overcrowded cramped tenement dwellings.
- An entire family would often live in one room, there were few basic facilities, a limited water supply and primitive sanitation.
- The living conditions caused numerous health problems and allowed disease to spread.
What social problems did urbanisation cause?
- The government failed to recognise the social problems.
- An absence of a system of local government.
- many old boroughs had declined or expanded into large industrials towns but were still run by a mayor and Corporation. These bodies were corrupt and acted in self-interest and did little to introduce any improvements. They would often instead Commission large building that were of little benefit to the impoverished population. E.g a town hall in Birmingham
- lighting, drainage, water-supply, sanitation and transport were all areas that needed improvement.
How did the system of government at the time make the situation worse?
- The wealthy and middle class segregated themselves from the rest in large houses in leafy suburbs.
- The respectable middlings ranks such as trades and craft people lived in neat terraced housing not too far from the town centres.
How did the wealthy and middle class social conditions compare to those of the industrial workforce?
- Detrimental to health
- Men, Women and Children were enclosed in poorly ventilated factories for up to 16 hours a day, six days a week, for little pay.
- absence of safety regulations meant a high incidence of accidents.
- Much of the work in factories was done by women and children who were cheaper to employ.
- Small children were used to clear jams in machinery risking serious injury.
- Orphan children were widely used and shamefully exploited.
What were conditions in the work place like?
- No state provisions for children's schooling.
- The upper and middle class feared schooling the lower classes would encourage revolutionary thinking.
- Others felt an elementary level of education could be given to prevent ignorance and teach children about the scriptures and 'keep them in their place'. Sunday Schools existed for this purpose but there was no obligation to attend.
How were the working class disadvantages by lack of education?
- unable to cope with large scale urbanisation - floods of unemployed migrating from rural areas to towns and the high level of unemployment among workers who's jobs had been taken by machines.
- Relief came from the parish but many rural parishes were swallowed up in the expanding cities and over-burdened by demand.
- The problems with poor relief resulted in the poor being left to beg on the streets or turn to crime.
What were the problems with the system of poor relief?
- The rise of the population stimulated migration overseas and was a powerful force in the extension of the British Empire.
- The peace at the end of the Napoleonic Wars encouraged emigration.
- People emigrated for social, personal and religious reasons but also in the spirit of adventure and the hope of a better life.
- 103,000 approximately had emigrated by 1832.
Why was there emigration overseas and what effect did it have?
- greater wealth
- a larger population was sustained
- the new middle class were able to prosper
- arguably raised standards of living - for some.
- facilitated the growth of trade unions
How did industrialisation positively impact society?
- real wages rose considerably at the end of the Napoleonic Wars - much of this increase was the result of falling prices rather than rising wages.
What is the argument for standards of living improving as a result of industrialisation?
- size of the family
- cost of essential consumables
- unreliable - some people were paid in kind e.g. agricultural labourers with food.
- Wage data excludes unemployment.
- it doesn't take into account under-employment (seasonal work)
- regional differences in the rate of industrialisation
- some industries e.g. cotton grew faster than others.
- Wage data usually only includes Male income not women and children income which often contributes to the household income.
- Wage data doesn't take into consideration environmental difference (poor working conditions in mines for example).
What factors other than wages need to be considered when addressing standards of living and why are wages not reliable in assessing standards of living?
- Enclosure had destroyed the livelihood of many small farmers and created the class of landless labourers.
- The industrial labour force had to adapt to harsher and more disciplined systems in factories.
- Despite wages being higher in towns the living conditions caused resentment.
- deepening of social division also caused resentment.
- It was closely linked to the state of the economy.
- Periodic bad harvests - unemployment and rise in price of bread.
- The Speenhamland System of poor relief was unsatisfactory and inadequate to deal with the huge increase in the population.
What were the causes of working class discontent?
- spontaneous outbreaks of disorder.
- serious rioting
- Brutal capitalist punishment demoralised people further
- Luddism/Luddite riots
- 1816 political demonstrations at Spa Fields (Male suffrage, representation, secret ballot)
- The Blanketers 1817 (Lancashire weavers)
- the Peterloo Massacre 1819 (parliamentary representation key speaker Henry Hunt)
How did discontent manifest itself?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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