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C.11 Pressure for Change
Terms in this set (29)
- Outbreaks of machine breaking in Nottinghamshire by men who believed that machinery being used in the textiles factories was depriving them of their livelihood.
- The problem was initially among stocking-frame knitters who were angered by the use of a wide frame machine. It produced poorer quality but faster and cheaper to produce.
- They accuses factory owners of underhand practises which undervalued their skill, reduced their wages and put them out of work.
- Frustrated at the lack of resolution the stocking knitters turned to violence and resorted to machine breaking, intimidation and rioting.
When did the Luddite Riots begin, why, who was involved and what caused them?
- caused the government alarm
- spread to Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cheshire
- The Yorkshire protests were directed against new technology rather than the unfair work practises of their employers. They initially tried the democratic process and petitioned and parliament but turned to machine breaking when this failed.
- The skilled croppers in the woollen industry protested against the introduction of the shearing frame which threatened to make their skill obsolete.
- In Lancashire cotton mills power looms were attacked and smashed by hand-loom weavers.
To where did Luddism spread and what effect did it have?
- a prominent woollen manufacturer William Horsfall was murdered by a group of four luddites in cold blood on his way home from market
- 60 men stood for trial for Luddite offences some months later and three were hanged for Horsefalls killing.
What was the height of Luddism violence?
- soldiers were drafted in to keep order.
- after a spate of arrests, trails, transportations and hangings the resistance ended.
How did the government react to Luddism?
- Within a few years skilled croppers could no longer find work in the woollen industry.
- The hand-loom weavers in the Cotten industry suffered years of falling wages and their skill was gradually overtaken by the power loom.
- The stocking knitters were more successful as the superior quality of their produce was still in demand and their wages rose once the unrest died down.
What happened to the workers who's jobs were taken by machines?
- It surrounds their motivation.
- Darvall for example believes the unrest was the response of uneducated men who saw the machines as a threat to their jobs. He claims government spies couldn't find any evidence of treason or plan of revolution and that the unrest was limited to local reasons making a small and largely ineffective movement with no wider political motives.
- Thompson however argues the Luddite has a tendency of becoming a revolutionary movement. He argues they were highly organised and the target of their protests was not the machines but the lassaiz Faire system of government. He suggests that it is highly unlikely that there would be no connections between the ringleaders given the geographical proximity of the Luddite disturbances.
What is the Luddite debate?
- There is virtually no documentation from the Luddite themselves and the evidence at their trails came from 'alarmist local magistrates' it spies and informants who were interested in suggesting a conspiracy between the defenders.
What are the problems surrounding understanding the Luddite motives?
- middle-class backgrounds
- 1811 Hampden Clubs formed by Radical MP Sir Francis Burdett
- MP's like William Wilberforce and David Ricardo
- 1821 Manchester Guardian founded (mouthpiece for middle class manufacturers)
- Benthamite Radicals such as James Mill
What types of people were part of the Radicals and what are some example of radical organisations?
- Working class focused their discontent in low wages, unemployment and the inadequacies of the poor relief system. They expressed it through riots and disturbances but were also interested in achieving a political influence through and extension of the franchise.
- The middle-class were primarily concerned with redistribution of seats and other aspects of parliamentary reform.
How did the radicalism of the working class differ from that of the middle class?
- Political demonstration with Radical orator Henry Hunt as speaker.
- Poor organisation led to fighting among the crowds, arrests and dispersal by local militia.
When was the demonstration at Spa Fields London held and what events occurred there?
- Radicals who planned a march from Manchester to London to present petitions to the Prince Regent for relief of distress
- They were called the Blanketers because they were carrying bedding for their long march.
- They were dispersed at the outset.
Who were the Blanketers?
- To catch the ring leaders e.g. in Derbyshire Insurrection which ended in the hanging of three poor unemployed framework knitters.
Why did government spies encourage disorder among discontented workers?
- Stemmed for grievances of Lancashire weavers that their employers refused to agree to a legal minimum wage.
- They were unable to find a political solution and so held a public meeting to press for reform
- Henry Hunt was due to speak to the large crowds.
- The unnerved local magistrates despatched the Manchester Yeomanry who appeared armed and on horseback.
- They killed 11 people and injured hundreds more.
- The magistrates were congratulated by the government on their prompt action and the press took up the story comparing it to the victory over the French at Waterloo calling the events the Peterloo Massacre.
When was the radical meeting at St Peters Field in Manchester and what events occurred there?
- even middle class opinion was shocked by the unnecessary carnage.
- The Government were keen to show their zero tolerance on public disorder - they introduced the six acts which were seen as a direct attack on the radical movement.
How were the events at St Peters Field revived?
- Lack of a common goal
- the middle class were afraid of becoming to closely associated with the violent tactics of working class agitation
- Radicals in parliament were split in their objectives - Wilberforce focused on the abolition of slavery while Ricardo was interested in protecting the economic interests of the industrialist classes.
What was the key problem surrounding the radical movement?
London, Glasgow, Bristol and Liverpool
What areas of Britain benefited most from the slave trade?
- It was easier and more acceptable for people in Britain to express their opinions and make their views heard in opposition to the government as long as it was through peaceful channels
Why was opposition to slavery emerging in the early nineteenth century?
- Produced pamphlets which shocked an increasing literate audience about the inhumane conditions suffered by trafficked black African Americans
- This raised public consciousness
- William Wilberforce was the leading anti-slavery campaigner (A Yorkshire MP)
What where the elements of the campaign against slavery?
- An evangelical group Wilberforce was a part of who's aim was to 'save souls through the medium of political action'
- However they upheld class differences and distinctions between the rich and the poor.
- Their business was to promote righteousness and to promote the idea of a society seeking to improve personal standards of morality.
- They also encouraged more regular reading of the bible.
- They had a deep and genuine concern for people who could not help themselves e.g. salves.
What was the Clapham Sect?
- It formerly ended the trading of slaves, but did nothing to help those already enslaved in plantations in British Colonies.
- Supported by Pitt, Fox, Grey, Grenville and Canning.
What had the effect of the 1807 Abolition of Slavery Act been and who had the main political heavyweights supporting it been?
- After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 during peace negotiations among European Powers.
- They feared the slave trade would build up when Britain handed back African and Caribbean states back to their former owners.
When did the issue of slavery resurface after the passing of the 1807 act?
1823 - Wilberforce and philanthropist Thomas Buxton
- Co-ordinated a wider campaign to outlaw slavery throughout the British colonies
- In 1825 Buxton took over leadership
- Owners argues slaves had been institutionalised and would struggle outside of slavery and that giving freedom to slaves would cause serious unrest.
When was the anti-slavery society formed, by who and what was its effect?
- Under a whig Government.
When was the Abolition of Slavery Act finally passed?
- Alternative to the established Anglican Church.
- John Wesley was it leader and suggested that people could empower themselves and wants empowered could contribute something good to society.
- There was an emphasis on respectability, thrift, discipline, a strong work ethic and a belief in social equality.
- Their expansion after 1790 was regarded with suspicion and they were regarded as having radical tendencies due to their views concerning equality.
- They put a great deal of effort into convincing the establishment they were loyal subjects.
What was the significance of Methodism?
1811 - Lord Sidmouth attempted to introduce a bill requiring dissenting preachers to be licensed only if their respectability could be vouched for.
- There was so much uproar the bill was hastily withdrawn.
What measures were introduced due to suspicion of the Methodists?
- Gave Methodist legal protection to worship and confirmed they were not a destabilising influence on society.
- They worked peacefully towards tackling discontent in the industrial workforce.
- Their firm belief was peace and good order.
What was the significance of the repeal of the legislation which forbade Methodist meetings within five miles of a town and the Toleration Act to the Methodists?
- Robert Owen and David Ricardo
- It was the understanding that the value of a product bears some relation to the amount of labour that had gone into producing it.
Who established the idea of socialism, what was it and what was its significance?
- He believed if his workforce was properly treated and nurtured they would work harder and the result would be increased productivity.
- He didn't exploit his workforce and there were limits on at what age children could be employed and the amount of hours they could work.
- He believed organised recreation was essential, ignoring the possibility workers may feel exhausted after a 10/12 hour working day.
How did Owen apply the idea to his workforce?
- He wrote about his New Lanark experiment in: A New View of Society: Essays on the Principle of the Formation of the Human Character.
- He believed character was formed by circumstance but it might be possible to develop a persons character by controlling their environment.
- He tried to put the idea in practise at schools.
- The publication of his essays brought hundreds of visitors to New Lanark and Owen became famous.
- In 1824 Owen went to the US to put his ideas in practise but he lost a fortune setting them up.
- When he returned to Britain he played a significant role in the establishment of the Trade Union and Cooperative Movements.
How did Owen share his ideas?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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