35 terms

IB Psychology - Cognitive approach

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Anchoring bias
The act of relying on one piece of information, usually the first thing you learn, and using it as a bias for the decision you make.
Cognitive development
Study of the development of a child's brain in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain.
Confirmation Bias
When people want a certain idea/belief to be true, they believe it is true. It occurs from the direct influence of desire on beliefs.
Decision making
The process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision-maker
Eye-witness Testimony
Refers to the account given by people who have witnessed an event or crime.
Heuristics
Simple and efficient rules that people use to make quick judgements.
Memory Models
Memory is comprised of stores etc. that contrast how our LTM/STM etc. works. (MSM and WMM)
Multi Store Model
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed a structural model consisting of three sections. Sensory memory -> Short term memory <-> Long Term Memory
Phonological Loop
The area of the Working Memory Model that processes auditory information
Recency Effect
The ability to remember items at the end of a list as they are in short-term memory.
Reconstructive Memory
In the absence of memory, we fill the gaps to make sense.
Schema
A form of memory that organises categories of information and the relationships amongst them.
System 1/2
A dual process theory of thought implying that decision making occurs either impulsively or logically.
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
Part of the Working Memory Model that processes all types of visual information.
Working memory model
Extended concept of the multi-store model focusing on short-term memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974).
Articulatory control system
A component of the phonological loop (working memory model), known as the inner voice
Episodic memory
Autobiographical memory stored in LTM
Availability heuristic
A cognitive bias in which a person focuses too much on information that they happen to have available to them, rather than on systematic research.
Central executive
Part of Baddeley and Hitch's working memory model: a frontal-lobe process responsible for monitoring and coordinating the operation of the visuo-spatial sketchpad and the phonological loop.
Cognitive bias
A way of thinking that results from ones own likes, dislikes and experiences, e.g. cognitive dissonance
Deductive reasoning
This type of reasoning is based on theory. It starts out with a general hypothesis and then examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.
Early maladaptive schemas
Highly stable and enduring beliefs that often formed in childhood and are responsible for the persistence of a variety of mental disorders, even after treatment.
Flashbulb memory
A vivid and highly detailed memory of a highly emotional experience, e.g. princess Diana's death.
Halo effect
A cognitive bias in which a person perceives someones attributes as extending beyond the areas that they actually cover.
Heuristics
Simple rules used as a mental shorts cut for making judgements and decisions.
Inductive reasoning
This type of reasoning is based on observation. It starts out with an observation and then many observations, from which a pattern can be inferred and a theory developed.
Likert scale
A psychometric scale for measuring opinions, usually on a continuum from 1-5, where one extreme is the opposite of the other.
Reconstructive Memory
In the absence of memory, we fill the gaps to make sense.
Phonological loop
This is the part of Working Memory Model that deals with spoken and written material.
Phonological store
One of two components of the phonological loop known as the inner ear.
Primacy effect
The phenomenon that items at the beginning of a list are remembered better than those in the middle of the list because they are presumed to be transferred to LTM
Recency effect
The phenomenon that items at the end of a list are remembered better than those in the middle of the list because they are presumed to still be held in STM.
Representativeness heuristic
Used when making a judgement of an event under uncertainty. Often this judgement is wrong as resemblance does not necessarily make it more likely
Sensory memory
The first of the memory stores in multi-store model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)
Serial position effect
This is the effect on memory of the position that an item has in a list.