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Victimisation - Crime and Deviance
Terms in this set (22)
Victimisation definition - The United Nations
Those who have suffered harm (including mental, physical or emotional suffering, economic loss and impairment of their basic rights) through acts or omissions that violate the laws of the state
Victimisation definition - Chrisite
Victim is socially constructed. The stereotype of the 'ideal victim' favoured by the media, public and criminal justice system is a weak, innocent and blameless individual who is the target of a stranger's attack.
Features of Positivist Victimology
1. Identify factors that produce patterns in victimisation
2. Focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence
3. Aims to identify victims who have contributed to their own victimisation
Victim Proneness - Positivist Victimology
Identify the social and psychological characteristics of victims that make them different
Type of Victims - Positivist Victimology
13 characteristics of victims:
3. Mentally subnormal
Victims 'invite' victimisation by being the kind of person that they are. Include lifestyle factors such as obvious displays of wealth.
Wolfgang (1958) Victim Precipitation - Positivist Victimology
The victim triggered the events leading to the homicide e.g. being the first to use violence
Evaluation of Positivist Victimology
1. Ignores structural factors influencing victimisation e.g. poverty and patriarchy.
2. Can tip into victim blaming
3. Ignores situations where victims are unaware of their victimisation
Critical Victimology - Structural Factors
Factors like patriarchy and poverty which place powerless groups such as women and the poor at a greater risk of victimisation - Victimisation is a form of structural powerlessness.
Critical Victimology - The state's power to apply or deny the label of a victim
Victim as a social construct in the same way as 'crime' and 'criminal'.
Through the criminal justice process, the state applies the label of victim to some but withholds it from others.
Tombs and Whyte 'Safety Crimes' - Critical Victimology
Employers' violations of the law lead to death or injury to workers but are often explained away as the fault of accident prone workers denying the victim official 'victim status' and blames them for their fate.
Similar to rape cases
The Ideological Function - Critical Victimology
Failure to label' or 'de-labelling' conceals the true extent of victimisation and its real causes, it hides the crimes of the powerful and denies the powerless victims any redress.
There's a hierarchy of victimisation
Evaluation of Critical Victimology
Disregards the role victims play in bringing victimisation on themselves through their own choices - Positivist Victimology
Gender and Victimisation
1. 70% of homicide victims are male.
2. Fewer women than men are victims of violence, 2% versus 4%.
3. 31% of women are more likely to be victims of domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking and harassment vs 18% of men
4. 80% of murders by a current/former partner are are female.
5. Women make up 92% of all rape victims.
6. Only 8% of women who experience a serious sexual offence report it to the police.
Ethnicity and Victimisation
1. 54,000 racist incidents in England and Wales in 2014/15 - estimated that there were actually 89,000 2. 38,000 racially or religiously aggravated offences in 2014/15, mostly harassment.
3. 27.9% of people from mixed ethnic backgrounds become a victim of crime compared to 18% - blacks, 15.5% - Asians and 15.7% - Whites
4. Ethnic minorities are more likely to report feeling under-protected yet over-controlled.
Social Class and Victimisation
Highest rates of victimisation are found:
2. Long-term sick
3. Areas of high physical disorder
4. Areas of deprivation
Those in the 20% of poorest areas face around 2x the risk of being a victim of burglary and nearly 2x the risk of vehicle-related thefts.
Age and Victimisation
1. Young people more likely to be perpetrators of violent crime and most likely to be victims of it.
2. Wilson et al (2006) 27% of 10-25 year olds reporting being victims of personal crimes like assault without injury and theft.
3. The old are also at risk of abuse e.g. in nursing homes where victimisation is less visible, but in general the risk of victimisation declines with age.
Pynoos et al (1987) - Impact of Victimisation
Crime can create 'indirect' victims
Child witnesses of a sniper attack continued to have grief-related dreams and alters behaviour a year after the event.
Hate Crimes - Impact of Victimisation
Hate crimes against minorities create 'waves of harm' that radiate out to affect others.
These are 'message' crimes aimed at intimidating whole communities not just the victim.
Can also challenge the value system of the whole society.
Individuals may suffer further victimisation at the hands of the criminal justice system.
Feminists - Secondary Victimisation
Rape victims are often so poorly treated by the police and the courts, it amounts to a double violation.
Fear of Victimisation
The fear of becoming a victim of crime to be irrational e.g. women are more afraid of going out for fear of attack yet it is men who are the main victims of violence from strangers
Feminists - Fear of Victimisation
Attack the idea of fear of crime.
Argue that it focuses on women's passivity and their psychological state when focus should be on their safety.
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