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Contemporary Urban Environments Key Terms
Terms in this set (63)
Land which has previously been built upon and is ready for re-urbanisation. Agenda 21 recommends recycling of old sites.
Goods that are bought less than everyday convenience goods. E.g. clothes electrical and household goods
A very large urban area, formed by the merging together of two or more cities, engulfing smaller towns and cities.
This occurs when increasing numbers of people move out of urban areas into the rural-urban fringe or further away to rural villages. The rise of new communication technologies, especially electronic systems, may have encouraged this movement.
Movement of people and functions (like offices or supermarkets) from the centre to the edge.
The degree to which an individual or an area is deprived of services and amenities. Poverty, lack of housing, unemployment, poor health, and lack of opportunity.
Density of population
the number of people per unit of area, usually km2
Urban economic sustainability allows the individuals and communities who live in cities to have access to a job and reliable income
Bids will be invited by local authorities for £15 million to "retrofit" existing houses with energy saving measures.
July 2009 Gordon Brown announced plans to create hundreds of thousands of homes in 10 "carbon neutral" communities E.g. north-west Bicester, Oxfordshire
A satellite city on the edge of a major metropolitan area with independent social and economic status. E.g. Los Angeles.
Reduction in quality caused by urbanization; Air pollution - from cars, factories and power stations. Water pollution - from factories , power stations and human waste. Loss of green open space - from urban sprawl
As the city centre becomes rundown, those who can afford it move out of the city, and less well-off people replace them
A high profile development designed to encourage investment in an area and to be a model for further developments e.g. Canary Wharf.
The purposes for the establishment and growth of a settlement. Small settlements like mining villages have only one function. The larger the settlement the greater the number and variety of functions they have.
a common feature of US cities - enclaves of very high income groups seeking to isolate themselves
This is when the status of an inner city area, which has been neglected, becomes upgraded and fashionable as wealthier people move back in. They have greater resources and improve and increase the area's status again.
A set of processes leading to the integration of economic, cultural, political and social systems across geographical boundaries.
the area of open space or low density urban land uses around a town or city in which any new developments of an urban nature are strictly controlled or forbidden by planners and local authorities.
Land which has never previously been built upon.
Hierarchy of settlement
This is when settlements are placed in order according to size or the number of goods and services supplied by them. It has a pyramid shape as because there are more small settlements than large ones.
Independent non-profit making organisation for managing, building and renovating housing.
The use of open spaces within a conurbation to build new housing or services, often close to where a green belt restricts outwards growth.
are constructed in an ad hoc fashion with a lack of any discernable organisation or planning. They are constructed on land generally considered unsuitable for development such as hillsides. They are overcrowded with a lack of services
and amenities. They are often constructed of unsuitable materials such as wood and corrugated iron
In- migration/ Out-migration
The movement of people between places within one country such as in and out of a town or city.
long-term urban sustainability.
Design features of housing, for long-term sustainability e.g. relatively high density and buildings up to four stories high (larger floor space, yet taking up less ground floor area); solar panels on the roofs (renewable source of energy); large windows designed for maximum daylight, no garages to encourage use of public transport or bicycles rather than cars.
A city with more than 10 million inhabitants. E.g. Tokyo, Shanghai, Mumbai, Lagos, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires, Jakarta, Calcutta
A city of more than one million people.
Measuring a range of problems that exacerbate the problems for inner city dwellers in MEDCs and peripheral dwellers in LEDCs; income, employment, crime, health, disability, overcrowding, homelessness, poor skills, poor language skills, poor education and lack of prospects.
concerns a shopping outlet on the edge of an urban area. Here land is cheaper, and there is space for expansion, car parking, and associated leisure activities. Examples include Bluewater, Trafford Centre, Metro Centre and Meadowhall
Measurement in England is entitlement to free school meals - UK average is 16% but Tower Hamlets had the highest (52%). In LEDCs people living on less than $1.08 are said to be below the poverty line e.g. Mumbai is a megalopolis of 16 million people, more than half of which live in poverty
Primate pattern of settlement
This distribution exists in a country when the largest settlement is much more than twice the size of the second largest settlement. It may be many times larger and this means that the rank size rule does not apply. E.g. Peru with Lima
The maximum distance that a person is prepared to travel to purchase goods or services. The range marks the limits of the area served by a settlement
Urban regeneration takes a variety of forms; gentrification ( Spittalfields), property-led regeneration schemes (the 2012 Olympic -Stratford), partnership schemes between local and national governments (Canary Wharf) and the private sector. Many city centres in the UK have had to undergo change in an attempt to stop the 'donut effect.' E.g. Greenwich Penninsula Site
Make changes to improve the structure of buildings to incorporate technological advances that were not available when the buildings were originally constructed.
This means an increasing number of people moving back into the inner suburbs having previously lived in the suburbs or rural areas. (new build, gentrification and social housing within the inner areas).
Rural- urban fringe
The areas of countryside around the built up area. Land uses include golf courses and water supply. This area is under great pressure from city growth, because of a desire to move out of town.
The separation of different functions or different groups of people within cities so that they are concentrated in areas to the exclusion of others. E.g. shops and offices in the CBD.
Self help schemes.
The city authorities hope to improve living conditions by helping the residents to help themselves. They grant squatters legal title to their land; provide essential infrastructure such as mains water, roads and electricity and give loans to residents to purchase building materials and hire builders to improve their homes.
An area of poor low cost housing often around a big city in LEDCs, often without full provision of services. E.g. Favelas in Brazil, barriadas in Peru and bustees in India.
Site and services scheme
A method of encouraging housing improvement in poor areas of LEDC cities. The government provide the land and installs electricity and water. Local people can obtain a plot in the scheme for low rent and then build their own houses.
E.g. Dharavi, Mumbai, India People will be re-housed in temporarily and housing replaced with 7 storey tenements. Any family that can prove they have been living in Dharavi since 1995 will receive free housing. The rest will be sold
Slums of Despair
Areas such as Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya is called Kibera and has over 800,000 inhabitants. Recently the rents were raised there and many poor people can barely afford to eat. It had became a political hot topic leading to severe violence, fires, protests and riots. Most feared for their lives. If the riots and protests do not kill them then surely HIV/AIDS or the raw sewage runoff into Nairobi River, which is used downstream for people washing their clothes. Still even worse most of the landlords of the slum (60%) are government officers or politicians. Volunteer health clinic workers say that over 50% of the problems they see are hygiene related. People cannot afford to pay for some of the open pit latrines and instead hold it until night time and defecate into a plastic bag and throw it into the street or on a neighbor's roof. They call these "Flying Toilets" and unfortunately nearly all the roofs leak or are in a state of disrepair. In most countries clearance policies have been largely abandoned.
Slums of Hope
shanties are generally accepted as being part of development policy nowadays and there are successful attempts made to improve the conditions for the inhabitants. E.g. Cingapura, self help, site and services in Sao Paulao.
Urban social sustainability provides a reasonable quality of life, and opportunities to maximise personal potential through education and health provision, and through participation in local democracies.
Spheres of Influence
Area served by a settlement, or area from within which people are attracted to buy goods or services from retail outlets.
This is the first area f self-help housing for many newcomers into cities in LEDCs; they are lower status than shanty towns.
People who have a valid interest in a planning decision such as developers, shoppers, local authorities, water authority and environmentalists.
Being a global citizen and custodian. Everyone has the responsibility for the welfare of the world, its organisms and its people.
Structure of settlements
The form and layout of land uses in urban areas. Urban models attempt to summarize these.
The increased movement of people services and industries from the centre to the edges of cities.
Villages that have grown as a result of people moving out of cities. The structure of the settlement and socio-economic characteristics are changed.
Urban environmental sustainability can be defined as meeting the present needs of urban populations in such a way as to avoid harming the opportunities for future generations to meet their needs. This can only be achieved by organising and managing cities: To minimise damage to the environment and to prevent depletion of natural resources
Minimum number of people needed to make a service profitable.
Total diversion rate
The amount of material in kg/household /year that is recycled and or composted instead of going to landfill.
A range of urban policies and strategies to reduce urban pollution and improve health in cities, e.g. Car clubs - pay as you go car schemes e.g. in London, Bristol; Overground train lines, New Delhi; Carpool lanes, California- for cars with two or more people: Bus lanes, New Delhi; Trams, Calcutta; Primary school 'walking train', Cheshire; Slowing traffic down can encourage pedestrians and cyclists onto the roads; Multi storey bicycle parks in Japan; Speed cameras;Pedicabs, New York - also found in London Auto rickshaw -used in New Delhi; London underground; Low floor buses, USA ( for wheelchairs) Bendy buses in London Park and ride, Oxford, Congestion charge London.
These represent attempts to summarise the distribution of land uses in urban areas.
Can be distinguished from a rural settlement by; greater size, larger area, larger sphere of influence, more functions and wider range of services.
Aka suburban sprawl, is the spreading of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area.
Part of a city with similar land uses e.g. CBD, low value housing, industrial areas, and inner city.
Increasing proportion of country's population living within urban areas. There are two causes of urbanisation: natural population growth and migration from rural to urban areas
Cities have limited "carrying capacities". They can only manage a certain amount of waste. A sustainable city is better equipped to grow and develop economically and cope with future population rises. UK by 2015 aims to recycle 33% of waste. Various estimates...over 400 million tonnes per year. UK mainly dependant on landfill (4000 sites) 85% of waste. Recycling and its alternatives.
a city that acts as a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics, culture etc. These cities have great influence on the global scale and have worldwide commercial power. NY, London and Tokyo sit at the top of the global hierarchy
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