35 terms

IB Psychology - Sociocultural Approach

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Acculturation
This is the process whereby people change as a result of contact with other cultures and how they assimilate into the new culture
ARRM
Attention/Retention/Reproduction/Motivation
Assimilation
The process by which individuals or groups of differing cultures are absorbed into the dominant culture of a society.
Collectivism
A culture that places emphasis on the group, achieved goals as a group and working together
Confederate
Someone in a study who knows the true aim but pretends to be a participant as part of the deception of the other participants, e.g. Asch.
Conformity
A type of social influence involving a change in belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a group.
Cultural Dimensions
Opposing cultural beliefs and values on a continuum that affects behaviour and cognition (Hofstede, 1973).
Cultural norms
The behaviour, attitudes and values that are usual in a culture and that are passed on intergenerationally through socialisation implicitly or explicitly.
Culture
"This can be defined as a dynamic system of rules, explicit and implicit, established by social groups in order to ensure their survival, involving attitudes, values, beliefs, norms, and behaviours" - Matsumoto
Discrimination
The behaviour that is exhibited due to prejudices.
Enculturation
Process by which an individual absorbs their culture's specific schemas and traits.
Globalisation
The growing interconnectedness of economic, social and cultural networks, through trade, information technology and travel
Social Identification
Second stage of Social Identity Theory: Individuals identify with certain groups to which they would like to belong
In-group and Out-group
The groups of people we consider ourselves as part of and not part of.
Individualism
People prioritise their own individual goals instead of the group - opposite of collectivism.
Informational influence
In conformity, this is when a less knowledgeable person looks for guidance within a group
Intrinsic Reinforcement
A reward driven behaviour that comes from within an individual, e.g. pride.
Long - term orientation
A type of cultural dimension in which the culture will look to the future long-term goals and benefits
Negative Reinforcement
An undesirable stimulus is introduced to encourage behaviour.
Normative influence
Conforming into group pressure because a person wants to fit in with the group
Observational Learning
Method of learning that consists of watching and copying another person's behaviour.
Positive Reinforcement
A desirable stimulus is introduced to encourage the behaviour.
Prejudice
A quick and often negative thought process about a specific individual or group
Resilience
The ability to cope with a trauma without drastically affecting mental health
Social Cognitive Theory
A theory that focuses on observational learning, and the influence of self-efficacy on the production of behaviour
Self-Efficacy
One's belief in their innate ability to succeed in specific situations or achieve goals.
Short - term Orientation
A type of cultural dimension in which the culture will look to the short-term goals and gratification.
Social Identity Theory
A theory that proposes that a person's sense of who they are depends on the groups to which the belong
Social Norms
Behaviours deemed acceptable by a group, either explicit or implicit
Social Representation
A system of values ideas and practices that serve to establish a social order (Moscovici, 1972)
Stereotypes
A fixed, over generalised belief about a particular group or class of people.
Social Categorisation
First stage of Social Identity Theory: The process of grouping people biased on their similarities or other qualities
Social Comparison
Third stage of Social Identity Theory: Comparing the in-group with the out-group and denigrating it to boost the status of the in-group
Illusory Correlation
A phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviours) even when no such relationship exists.
Stereotype Threat
This is when individuals believe that their behaviour/performance will be judged on the basis of negative stereotypes about their group instead of personal merit.
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