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Key question - Biological
Terms in this set (17)
What is the key question?
What are the implications for society if aggression is found to be caused by nature not nurture?
Describe the issue of aggression being caused by nurture
When behaviours are caused by environment then a person can choose not to be aggressive by avoiding the provoking situation or person or they could act differently by being assertive or doing cathartic acts
Describe the issue of aggression being caused by nature
A person has no control over their actions if a behaviour is caused by nature since they can't change their genes meaning they can't be held responsible for their actions, imprisonment and punishment becomes redundant if our actions are due to nature since a person doesn't choose to act that way
If aggression is caused by nature what does it become? Therefore?
A disorder, they can't be punished
What concepts from the biological approach can be used to explain aggression? (5)
Brain functioning, brain structure, hormones, evolution, Freud
What concepts from the learning approach can be used to explain aggression? (3)
Operant conditioning, social learning theory, vicarious reinforcement
What concepts from the social approach can be used to explain aggression? (3)
Social identity theory, realistic conflict theory, charismatic leadership
How does brain functioning account for aggression?
Aggression can be provoked if areas such as the hypothalamus or limbic system are stimulated therefore suggesting our biology can affect it
What animal study supports brain function as responsible for aggression? Describe it
Adelson 2004, when aggression centre was electrically stimulated in rats there was more stress and when stress hormones were increased this lead to the aggression centre being stimulated
How does Charles Whitman support aggression being due to nature?
He had a tumour pressing against his limbic system which lead him to kill people
How do hormones support aggression being due to nature?
Consistent links have been found between high testosterone and low cortisol levels leading to aggression
How do hormones support aggression being due to nurture? How does this lead to aggression being reduced?
The environment can trigger stress which increases cortisol therefore increasing aggression, a person can avoid stressful situations
How does evolution and natural selection account for aggression being due to nature? Link to question statement
In the EEA, males were more aggressive to protect offspring and their mate which ensured the survival of their genetics meaning they're passed on through generations, this supports the nature argument therefore society can't blame people for the genes they inherit
How does operant conditioning lead to reducing aggression? Is this when caused by nature or nurture?
A learned response can be punished or rewarded, nurture
How does SLT account for aggression? How does Bandura support this?
Person watches role model, retain the information, when they have the skills they repeat the behaviour, if they are motivated then it will continue, in his 1965 study he found there were more imitative responses when the model was rewarded
Which of Freud's hypotheses accounts for aggression? (Name + explain)
Frustration hypothesis, an underdeveloped ego can't control the impulsive id meaning the person will act more on basic biological impulses
How does Raine support aggression being due to nature?
He found brain differences between murderers and non-murderers suggesting that aggression may come from nature therefore permitting the plea of NGRI since people are not responsible for their actions
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