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Politics - Year 2 - Global Politics - Globalisation and the Nation State
Terms in this set (100)
Define a Nation-State
A sovereign body the citizens of which share a recognisably homogenous culture, language and ancestry
Give a brief history of the nation-state
Shakespeare's Henry V: "We few, we happy few, we band of brothers"
1860: Unification of Italy (Manzzini)
1861-5: American Civil War
1871: Von Bismark unites Germany
1918: Woodrow Wilson's 14 points
1991: Collapse of the Soviet Union
1993: Czechoslovakia splits into the Czech and Slovak Republics
The principle of unlimited authority which is characteristic of a nation-state, meaning no other institution can impose it's will over the nation-state
What 2 documents reinforce the idea of National-soverignty
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
The UN Declaration of human Rights
Article 2 recognises "the sovereign equality of all members"
The process by which the world becomes more closely interdependent and interconnected which challenges the autonomy of the nation-state
What are the 5 areas we see globalisation affecting?
What is Economic Globalisation?
Nation's economies become increasing interconnected and interdependent due to the expansion of 'Washington Consensus"/ free market ideology
What theory does economic globalisation link to?
Complex interdependence: KEOHANE and NYE
What impact does economic globalisation have on nation-states' economies according the THOMAS FRIEDMAN?
States' economies "Flatten Out" as they open up to global trade
What impact does economic globalisation have on the sovereignty of nation-states?
As economies "flatten out" as they open up to global trade, state sovereignty becomes limited as states' actions are bound by the need to appeal attractive to investors, so they no longer have complete control over their economic policy
What is Political Globalisation?
Nation-states cooperate with other states and non-state actors in multilateral policy making, meaning decisions are made in an increasingly polycentric manner
What impact does political globalisation have on state sovereignty?
States become bound by supranational authorities, meaning they no longer have control of some areas of policy making (e.g. EU regulations of bendy bananas)
What theory does political globalisation link to?
Democratic Peace Theory/ 'perpetual Peace theory' KANT
What is cultural globalisation?
The process by which the unique culture of a nation-state is challenged by the rise of homogenous global culture, where cultural similarities between people become more noticeable than their differences
What theory does cultural globalisation link to?
McWorld theory: Barber
Democratic/Perpetual Peace theory
What statistic could be used to support the notion of cultural globalisation?
50% of internet traffic was in english
What impact doe cultural globalisation have on state sovereignty?
The concept of a nation, a homogenous group of people with a similar culture, is eroded, meaning it is less well defined, which means states lack the defined culture which they use as basis of their sovereignty
What is financial globalisation?
The growing influence of global financial markets and the instantaneous movement of capital, means that the nation-state cannot insulate itself from the global financial market
What impact does financial globalisation have on the nation-state?
Forces cooperative action the protect the global economy from ruin
States are bound by the need to attract financial investors
Give an example of the impacts of financial globalisation?
The GFC was caused by the collapse of US investment bank 'The Lehman Brothers'
Caused Japanese exports to decline 57% in 5 months
German exports dropped 25%
Alistair Darling (former chancellor of the exchequer) said GFC brought UK banking system "within hours"of collapse
Donne on the increasingly globalised world
"Every man is a piece of the continent,
A part of the main" DONNE
McLuhan on the increasingly globalised world
"We are moving towards a global village, but that global village brings in a lot of different people" MCLUHAN
In what two other ways (besides the 5 forms of globalisation) are states becoming increasingly interdependent?
In what 3 ways has international law made states more interdependent?
UNDHR (1948) EUDHR (1950) have great moral rate (convergence of morality)
International Court of Justice and ICC exist to enforce international law on nation states (supranational authority)
UN Special Tribunals (diminish the power of heads of state)
In what two ways has humanitarian intervention made states more interdependent?
Tend to be multilateral operations, which forces cooperation and interdependence
Responsibility2Protect (2005)- makes state sovereignty conditional and puts emphasis on the responsibility of the international community as a whole- facilitates cooperation and therefore interdependence.
What is the realist approach to economic globalisation?
>States should focus on cultivating domestic trade because it creates stability in nations themselves
>Globalisation makes the wealth divide grow which is not in the interest of citizens: Amy Chua
>Globalisation forces dependency of poorer states on wealthier states: Dependancy Theory- Wallerstein
What is the realist approach to political globalisation?
> Undermining Westphalian Principle of state sovereignty, leads to instability as it is the only certainty that states have in the anarchic system
> Non-State actors are undemocratic and have no popular mandate, which undermines any rights to sovereignty they have
> IGOs are Epiphenomenal: States only choose to belong to them so long as doing so furthers their interests (have no real power)
What is the realist approach to cultural globalisation?
> Undermines the volkgeist of each nation which has to be respected in order for their to be any stability - Von Herder
> Cultural globalisation inevitably leads to instability and war as civilisations clash as they are brought closer together: HUNTINGDON
> Homogenous global culture is empty materialism: NAOMI KLEIN
What is the Liberal approach to economic globalisation?
> Forces complex interdependence which facilitates cooperation and peace (KEOHANE & NYE)
> Reduces the likelihood of conflict, as being part of the same supply chains means war will lead to mutually assured economic destruction (THE DELL THEORY OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION)
> Means all countries have the same economic goals- e.g. everyone wants to eradicate global poverty
What is the Liberal approach to cultural globalisation?
Homogenisation of culture means a spread of political values and morals, which makes people less likely to fear other cultures as they are similar to their own
McPeace theory: Friedman
No two countries with a McDonalds have ever gone to war with each other
What is a hyperglobalist?
Also known as global optimists as they see globalisation as the means by which economic prosperity, liberal democracy and a homogenous culture are spread, all of which creates peace in the world
Who are the key hyperglobalist thinkers?
Fukuyama - End of history
Bastiat - Goods vs Armies
Keohane & Nye - Complex Interdependence
Kant- Perpetual/Democratic peace theory
Friedman - McPeace Theory
Dell theory of conflict resolution
The World is Flat
Bobbit- the "hollow" state
What is the central premise of Fukuyama's 'Last man' argument?
The end of the cold war will mean the spread of liberal democracy, and peace for the world.
What is the central premise of Bastiat's 'Goods vs Armies' argument?
That "If goods don't cross borders, armies will" (i.e. if nations aren't trading with each other then they are likely to go to war with each other)
What is the central premise of Keohane & Nye's complex interdependence theory?
As states embrace capitalist ideology, they become increasingly interdependent and interconnected. This means their interests align and they are much less likely to go to war, as they all share the same or similar interests
What is the central premise of Friedman's McPeace theory?
Countries with a middle-class large enough to support a McDonalds have reached a level of prosperity and integration that makes war mongering risky
What is the central premise of Friedman's Dell they of conflict resolution?
"No two countries that are both part of a major global supply chain, like Dell's, will ever fight a war against each other as long as they are both part of the same global supply chain"
What does the title of Friedman's book 'The World Is Flat" suggest about globalisation?
That globalisation has lead to a flattening out of the global economy which makes competition fair as globalisation creates equality of opportunity
What is the central premise of Bobbit's theory of the the "hollow" state?
The concept of the nation state has been "hollowed out" as sovereignty is pooled into IGOs become increasingly important which will inevitably lead to some kind of world governance
What is a globalisation sceptic?
Believe that the impacts of globalisation are either insignificant or have done damage to society as a whole
Who are the 6 key thinkers associated with globalisation scepticism?
Chua - World on Fire: Wealth inequality
Barber - Jihad vs McWorld
Huntingdon - Clash of Civilisations
Klein - No Logo
Wallerstein - Dependency World Systems Theory
Darendorf - Globalisation leads to atomism
What is the central premise of Chua's World on Fire argument?
Globalisation has created huge wealth, but has massively exacerbated wealth inequality which is destabilising
What is the central premise of Barber's 'Jihad vs McWorld' argument?
Globalisation imposes a new culture on tribal forces (religions, cultures etc) which creates a reaction, and a destabilising effect
What is the central premise of Huntingdon's clash of civilisations, argument?
As civilisations come into contact through globalisation, it will create the primary source of conflict in the Post-Cold War period
What is Klein's "No Logo" argument?
That the homogenised culture created by globalisation is empty and brand orientated
What is Wallerstein's World Systems theory?
Core states control the wealth of the world, and force periphery states to be dependant on them, which is facilitated by neoliberal global trade policies.
What is Darendorf's atomisation argument?
Globalisation will lead to the breakdown of social cohesion because it puts such a great emphasis on individualism and atomism
Give the 5 case studies which show the failures of globalisation?
Failure of the Doha Round negotiations: fails to facilitate economic cohesion
70% of the world's population lies outside the jurisdiction of the ICC
Trump pulls out of the Paris Climate Accord (2017)
Brexit- demonstrates the resurgence of the the nation state
Global Trade in 2007: 53% of flow of good services and finance
What is a transformationalist?
Don't believe that the nation state has become completely redundant, neither do they believe that the role of the nation-state is completely unchanged. Rather they believe that globalisation is transforming the role of the nation-state
What evidence is there to suggest that the role of the state is transforming, according to the transformationalist doctrine?
Has strengthened it's power as a nation-state by harnessing the power of globalisation.
What key thinker is associated with transformationalist views of globalisation. What was the name of his work?
Hedely Bull: 'The Anarchical Society' (1977)
What does Bull argue about the changing role of the nation-state in regards to transformationalism?
States remain sovereign and dominant in the international system, but in the increasingly globalised world, they cooperate and form strong bonds of reciprocal behaviour, showing that the nature of the the nation-state is being transformed by globalisation
What are the key areas of exploration in regards to exploring the advantages and disadvantages of globalisation?
The impact of globalisation on state sovereignty
The impact of globalisation of reducing poverty
The impact of globalisation in spreading human rights
The impact of globalisation in protecting the environment
The impact of globalisation in reducing conflict
What are the arguments to suggest that globalisation has diminished the role of the nation state?
Political globalisation has increased cooperative action between nation states, which is dominating how they make decisions. This is now creating increasingly supranational IGOs
That globalisation has forced complex interdependence between states which impacts the control states have over their economies
Globalisation has created an increasingly homogenised global culture which diminishes the concept of nationhood in regards to the concept of the nation state
How could it be argued that globalisation has not diminished the role of the nation-state?
State sovereignty has not been undermined by increased cooperative action, as states can leave IGOs and cooperative action plans at any time
Economic globalisation has not diminished the role of the nation state, but has propped up the power balance in favour of rich nations
Cultural globalisation has not diminished the power of the nation-state in regards to the concept of nationhood, as people revert back to their traditional cultures
What evidence could be give to suggest that political globalisation has diminished the role of the nation-state?
Increasingly cooperative action=
G20 took the decision not to impose import tariffs on foreign goods in the wake of the GFC(2009)
The power of IGOs=
The Maastricht Treaty moved the transformed the EEC into a supranational body, which now dictates policy to member states - e.g Article 13 and the meme copyright
What evidence could be used to suggest that economic globalisation has diminished the power of nation states?
The Dell theory of conflict resolution
Suggests that when state's economic interests become aligned, they are less likely to go to war with each other.
Shown in the success of the EEC and keeping Germany and France at peace.
Complex interdependence binds states into cooperation via the economy, which reduces the power of the nation state.
What evidence could be used to support the idea that cultural globalisation has diminished the role of the nation-state?
50% of global internet traffic is now in english
50% of the world's nations are democracies
Shows that there is a homogenisation of global culture (language and values), which diminishes the idea of the "volk-giest" (VON HERDER), which is essential to the concept of a nation-state as it is what defines a nation
What evidence could be used to suggest that political globalisation has not diminished the role of the nation-state?
States remain sovereign entities
Article 2 of the UNDHR recognises "the sovereign equality of all members"
Article 50 of the Lisbon treaty allows member states to exit the EU at anytime
What evidence could be used to suggest that economic globalisation has not diminished the role of the nation-state?
Dependency World Systems theory: Wallerstein
Shown in the WB and IMF's instance that LEDCs start growing Cash Crops as part of their structural adjustment programmes, which makes them dependent of MEDCs
Shows that the nation-state remains sovereign as they harness the power of globalisation to tip the global-balance of power in their favour
What evidence could be used to suggest that cultural globalisation is not diminishing the role of the nation-state?
The rise of nationalism in Europe
Marine Le Penn in 2017
Brexit in 2016
Reaffirmation of state sovereignty ia nationalist movements (which centre on bringing back national exceptionalism- e.g. 'it's called GREAT Britain for a reason')
What would be your argument in the debate over whether national sovereignty is challenged by globalisation?
What would be the gobbit you'd use in your conclusion?
No- the sovereignty of the nation-state is not challenged by globalisation
"We few, we happy few, we band of brothers" William Shakespeare's Henry the V
What are the arguments to suggest that globalisation HAS reduced global poverty?
Economic globalisation, and the reduction of tariffs has meant that more people have more money
Economic globalisation has allowed less developed economies to expand, lifting their citizens out of poverty
IGOs have allowed nations to expand their economies which lift people out of poverty
What are the arguments to suggest that globalisation HAS NOT/ HAS WORSENED poverty?
Economic globalisation has reinstitutionalised traditional the colonial power balance generating huge wealth inequality between nation
Yes, globalisation has made previous undeveloped countries richer, but it again generates huge wealth inequality and poor working conditions
The aid that has been invested through political globalisation has been poorly invested and unthought out
What evidence could be used to suggest that economic globalisation has reduced tariffs which has increased global wealth?
Average tariff in 1950's = 40%
Average tariff in 1990's = 3%
Global GDP per capita has increased 1.88% since 1961-2017
Thanks to global economic governance (GATT & The WTO)
What evidence could be used to suggest that economic globalisation has allowed LEDCs to develop and has lifted people out of poverty?
South Asian Nations in ASEAN
Reduction in poverty
Number of people living on less the $1.90 a day
Massive poverty reduction in regional areas as they open their economies
What evidence could be used to argue that IGOs have positively impacted poverty
IGOs (Bretton Woods) and Structural Adjustment Programmes- Reform of the Nepalese economy in 1985 which meant their economy grew.
Growth of GDP per capita is expected to grow 6.5% this ear, compared to 0.3% in 1961
Show that IGOs and institutions of political governance have positively impacted poverty
How could it be argued that globalisation has reintitutionalised the colonial power balance which has created wealth inequality between nation states?
Dependancy World Systems theory: Wallerstein
e.g Benin's exportation of cotton the west is worth 80% of total exports and 40% of national GDP
How could it be argued that globalisation has driven interstate wealth inequality and poor workers' rights?
Income inequality in Bangladesh
Top 10% own 26.92% of national wealth
Lowest 10% own 3.85% of the wealth
Poor Workers rights
The Rana Plaza disaster (2014)
Shows that globalisation has not helped improve the lives of the many, and as such 63 million people in Bangladesh remain in poverty
What statistic could be used to suggest that aid from IGOs has been poorly invested?
Nigeria has a youth unemployment rate of 50% because aid from NGOs and IGOs has been invested in education, without developing the economy to provide jobs for the newly educated population
What would be your line of argument in an essay on whether globalisation has positively or negatively impacted poverty?
What gobbit would you use in your conclusion?
Globalisation has not decreased poverty
The top 1% of earners in the world own 50.1% of global wealth
What arguments could be used to suggest that globalisation has been successful in limiting climate change?
Political globalisation has created the platform for cooperative action to tackle climate change
Globalisation, and particularly the increase of communication through the internet, has meant coordinated public action has been taken which has influenced the political agenda
Globalisation (both political and economic) has seen a spread of new technology which is limiting climate change
How could it be argued that globalisation has not been successful in limiting climate change?
States are pulling out of cooperative movements to tackle climate change: self-interest
Globalisation has lead to an increase in climate change as states expand their economies
In a consumer driven society, exploitation of the environment in inevitable
What evidence could be used to suggest that political globalisation has been a platform for tackling globalisation?
The Kyoto summit 1992 set out a global framework for global action of climate change
The Paris Climate Agreement (2015) is the first time in history that states have been bound by emissions targets
ALL FACILITATED BY UN
What evidence could be used to suggest that globalisation (and specifically technological globalisation) is driving action on climate change?
Collective global action to protest climate change by school children, organised via Facebook
What could be given as evidence to suggest that the globalisation is leading to the spread of technology which is tackling globalisation, by allowing LEDCs to leapfrog?
Al gore, Solar City and India (2015)
Through the UN Al Gore was able to draw up a contract with Solar City and India, to give India the technology it needed to be able to sign up for the Paris Climate Agreement
Not Possible without globalisation
What evidence could be used to suggest that globalisation has not forced countries to participate in collective action to tackle climate change?
Trump pulling out of the PPC (2015)
"I represent the people of Pittsburgh not Paris"
Kyoto did not come into force until 2005, 8 years after the treaty was formulated
State's realist tendencies mean they are always willing to sacrifice the environment for domestic economic gain
What could be used as evidence to suggest that globalisation has lead to an expansion of states economies and further exploitation of environment?
India's emissions have increased 405.1% between 1990 and 2017 thanks to globalisation
Despite communal efforts, state's realist interests still take precedence over the environment
What could be used as evidence to suggest that the increasingly homogenous consumer culture we live in, driven by cultural globalisation, is forcing climate change.
The "global overshoot": William Rees
The world consumes 30% more than the world can sustainably support
What would be you're argument if a question on globalisation and the environment came up?
What would be the gobbit?
Globalisation has not helped the environment
IPCC report released in 2018 showed we only have 12 years before the effects of climate change become irreversible. If globalisation had truly solved climate change, such a prediction would not be being made
What are the arguments to suggest that globalisation HAS helped the spread of human rights?
Liberal interventionism has lead to the spread of human rights, which has been facilitated though multilateral action facilitated by political globalisation
Growth of The EU (a regional authority) has facilitated the spread of western human rights
The growth of international courts has facilitated the spread of human rights
What are the arguments to suggest that globalisation HAS NOT helped the spread of human rights
Liberal interventionism has often failed to establish stable democracies which respect human rights
Human rights abuses go on within states who belong to the EU
The jurisdiction of international courts is very limited, so they cannot enforce human rights effectively
What evidence could be used to support the idea that Liberal interventionism has helped to spread human rights?
Successful interventions have seen stable democracies established who respect HR
Respected a ruling made by the ECtHR in 2009 over discrimination in their new constitution
What evidence could be used to suggest that the growth of the EU has lead to the spread of human rights?
2004= EU expands to include 10 former soviet satellites, all of who signed up to the jurisdiction of the EDHR(1950) and the jurisdiction of the ECtHR
What evidence could be used to support the idea that the growth of international law has contributed to the spread of human rights?
International Court of Justice (1946)
International Criminal Court (20020
Creation of these courts to enforce international law has meant the spread of liberal values, as signing up to them means accepting the UNDHR(1948) and therefore respecting human rights
What evidence could be used to support the idea that liberal interventionism has failed to spread human rights?
Failed liberal interventions
Iraq (2003) have created failed states, or rogue state which have little or no respect for human rights at all
What evidence could be used to support the idea that states within the EU still violate human rights, so regional organisations haven;t contribute to the upholding of rights?
UK Government ignored rulings on
The Snoopers Charter in 2018
Prisoner Voting in the Hirst v UK case in 2006
What evidence could be used to support the idea that international courts have failed to spread human rights?
ICC: Al-Bashir (President of Sudan) remains on the run
70% of states don't sign up to its jurisdiction
Shows that it fails to enforce human rights
What would be your argument if a question on human rights and globalisation came up?
What would your gobbit be?
Globalisation has not spread human rights
Much of the world fails to recognise that "all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and in rights" showing that globalisation hasn't spread human rights
What are the arguments to suggest that globalisation HAS reduced the likelihood of conflict?
The spread of economic globalisation has decreed the likelihood due to complex interdependence
The increasing prevalence of IGO's in negotiating peace
Conflict has been reduced due to cultural globalisation and the embrace of liberal values in the homogenous global culture
What are the arguments to suggest that globalisation HAS NOT reduced the likelihood of conflict?
Economic globalisation has not reduced the likelihood of conflict, rather the nature of conflict has changed
The positive achievements of IGOs are far outweighed by their failures and inaction
The backlash against the homogenisation of global culture has created a rise in conflict
What evidence could be used to support the idea that the spread of complex interdependence has decreased the likelihood of conflict?
The effectiveness of the ECSC and later the ESC at keeping Germany and France at peace by integrating their economies
"If goods don't cross borders, armies will" BASTIAT
What evidence could be used to support the idea that IGOs have lead to a decrease in conflict?
UN authored interventions have deescalated conflict quickly, and have stabilised nations effectively, reducing regional conflict
Côte D'Ivoire (2011)
Conflicts resolved quickly and stable democracies installed, meaning likelihood of regional conflict is reduced
What evidence could be used to suggest that cultural globalisation has lead to a reduction in conflict?
Spread of liberal values in the post-war period, as formerly isolated nations open up the the West (e.g. former soviet satellites), has seen a homogenisation of liberal cultural values
Fukuyama: "The End of History and the Last Man"
What evidence could be used to suggest that economic globalisation has failed to reduce conflict?
Mary Kaldor: New War Thesis, conflict has not stopped but it has changed- now intrastate
Economic globalisation has meant although wars aren't being fought between nations anymore, states are still able to weigh in on conflicts through trade (e.g. US and Britain selling arms to S.Arabia to fight President Assad in Syria)
What evidence could be used to suggest that the positive impacts of IGOs are far outweighed by the negatives?
Successful interventions have only occurred in the West or where liberal democracies were previously established
In the large scale conflicts though, IGOs have been little use
Innaction in Rwanda lead to the deaths of 800,000 people in 1994
What evidence could be used to suggest that cultural globalisation has lead to a backlash from nation-states that is creating conflict?
The rise of Russian Nationalism, and an attempt to return to traditional russian values has seen events like the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the Novichik attack (2018), all of which were direct assaults on the West
Huntingdon: Clash of civilisations
Von Herder: The Volk-geist
What would be your argument in a question of globalisation and conflict?
What would be the gobbit?
Globalisation has failed to reduce conflict
It seems that in the words of the UN charter globalisation has "failed to save future generations from the scourge of war"
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