BIOLOGY- Cell Differentiation And Specialisation
Terms in this set (10)
It is the process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job.
What happens as cell change?
They develop different subcellular structures and turn into different types of cells. This allows them to carry out specific functions.
When does most differentiation occur?
As an organism develops. In most animal cells, the ability to differentiate is then lost at an early stage, after they become specialised. However, lots of plant cells don't ever lose this ability.
What are cells that differentiate in mature animals used for?
They are used for repairing and replacing cells such as skin or blood cells.
Undifferentiated cells called?
How are sperm cells specialised for reproduction?
1. The function of the sperm is basically to get the male DNA to the female DNA.
2. It has a long tail and a streamlined head to help it swim to the egg.
3. There are lots of mitochondria in the cell to provide the energy needed.
4. It also carries enzymes in its head to digest through the cell membrane.
How are nerve cells specialised for rapid signalling?
1. The function of nerve cells is to carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another.
2. These cells are long (to cover more distance) and have branched connections at their ends to connect to other nerve cells and form a network throughout the body.
How are muscle cells specialised for contraction?
1. The function of muscle cells is to contract quickly.
2. These cells are long (so that they have space to contract) and contain lots of mitochondria to generate the energy needed for contraction.
How are root hair cells specialised for absorbing water and minerals?
1. Root hair cells are cells on the surface of plant roots, which grow into long 'hairs' that stick out into the soil.
2. This gives the plant a big surface for absorbing water and mineral ions from the soil.
Phloem and xylem cells are specialised for transporting substances?
1. Phloem and xylem form phloem and xylem tubes, which transport substances such as food and water around plants.
2. To form the tubes, the cells are long and joined end to end.
3. Xylem cells are hollow in the centre and phloem cells have very few subcellular structures, so that stuff can flow through them.
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