BIOLOGY- Chromosomes And Mitosis
Terms in this set (10)
What are chromosomes?
They are coiled up lengths of DNA molecules.
What does each chromosome carry?
They each carry a large number of genes. Different genes control the development of different characteristics.
They normally have two copies of each chromosome- one from the organism's mother and one from its father.
How many chromosomes are there in a human cell?
What do body cells in multicellular organisms do?
Body cells in multicellular organisms divide to produce new cells as part of a series of stages called the cell cycle.
The stage of the cell cycle where the cell divides.
What to multicellular organisms use mitosis to grow?
They use mitosis to grow and develop or replace cells that have been damaged.
What is the result at the end of the cell cycle?
Two new cells identical to the original cell, with the same number of chromosomes.
Growth and DNA replication?
1. The DNA is all spread out in long strings.
2. The cell has to grow and increase the number of subcellular structures such as mitochondria and ribosomes.
3. It then duplicates its DNA- so there is one copy for each new cell. The DNA is copied and forms x-shaped chromosomes. Each 'arm' of the chromosome is an exact duplicate of the other.
1. The chromosomes line up at the centre of the cell and cell fibres pull them apart.
2. Membranes form around each of the sets of chromosomes. These become the nuclei of the two new cells- the nucleus has divided.
3. The cell has now produced two new daughter cells. The daughter cells contain exactly the same DNA- they're identical. Their DNA is also identical to the parent cell.
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