BIOLOGY- Cell Organisation
Terms in this set (26)
What do specialised cells form?
They form tissues, which form organs, which forms organ systems.
It is a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function.
It contracts to move whatever it's attached to.
It makes and secretes chemicals like enzymes and hormones.
It covers some parts of the body.
What are the tissues in the organ and what do they do?
1. Muscular tissue moves the stomach wall to churn up the food.
2. Glandular tissue: makes the digestive juices to digest food.
3. Epithelial tissue: covers the outside and inside of the stomach.
What organs make up the digestive system?
1. Glands: produces salivary juices.
2. Stomach and small intestine: digest food.
3. Liver: produces bile.
4. Small intestine: absorbs soluble food molecules.
5. Large intestine: absorbs water from undigested food, leaving faeces.
Biological catalysts that act as biological catalysts and reduce the need for high temperatures and they speed up the useful chemical reactions.
It is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction.
What are enzymes?
1. They are large proteins; made up of chains of amino acids.
2. They have an active site with a unique shape that fits onto the substance involved in a reaction.
3. For enzymes to work, the substrate has to fit into the active site. If the substance doesn't match the enzyme's active site; the reaction won't be catalysed.
Enzymes need the right temperature?
1. Changing the temperature changes the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction.
2. Like with any reaction, higher temperature increases the rate at first.
3. But if it gets too hot, some of the bonds holding the enzyme together break. This changes the shape of the enzyme's active site, so the substrate won't fit anymore. The enzyme is said to be denatured.
4. All enzymes have an optimum temperature that they work best at.
Enzymes need the right ph?
1. The ph also affects enzymes. If it is too low or too high, the ph interferes with the bonds holding the enzyme together.
2. This changes the shape of the active site and denatures the enzyme.
3. All enzymes have an optimum ph that they work best at. It's often neutral ph7, but not always.
How do digestive enzymes break down big molecules?
1. Starch, proteins and fats are big molecules. They are too big to pass through the walls of the digestive system, so digestive enzymes break these big molecules down into smaller ones like sugars, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids.
2. These smaller, soluble molecules can pass easily through the walls of the digestive system, allowing them to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
What do carbohydrases do?
They convert carbohydrates into simple sugars.
What are examples of carbohydrases?
Lipases, amylase and proteases.
What is amylases, where is it found?
1. Amylase breaks down starch and is found in the salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine.
What are proteases and where are they found?
Proteases covert proteins into amino acids and they are found in the stomach, pancreas and the small intestine.
What are lipase and where are they found?
Lipases covert lipids into glycerol and fatty acids and they are found in the pancreas and the small intestine.
What does bile do?
1. Bile is produced in the liver; stored in the gall bladder before it is released into the small intestine. Bile neutralises stomach acid and emulsifies fats.
2. The hydrochloric acid in the stomach makes the ph too acidic for enzymes in the small intestine to work properly. Bile is an alkaline- it neutralises the acid and makes conditions alkaline. The enzymes in the small intestine work best in these alkaline conditions.
3. It emulsifies fat; breaking it down into tiny droplets. This gives it a much bigger surface area for the enzyme lipase to work on; making digestion faster.
They produce amylase enzymes in the saliva.
Bile is stored before it is released into the small intestine.
Where excess water is absorbed from the food.
Where the faces are stored before they go through the anus.
1. Produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes to complete digestion.
2. This is where the digested food is absorbed out of the digestive system into the blood.
It produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes; releasing them into the small intestine.
1. It pummels the food with its muscular walls.
2. It produces the protease enzyme, pepsin.
3. It produces hydrochloric acid: to kill bacteria and to give the right ph for the protease enzyme to work.
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