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Ch.6 Wartime pressures on government
Terms in this set (22)
- With the treaty of Amiens signed in March 1802.
When was the first phase of the French War brought to an end?
- For hesitating before declaring war in May 1803 after Napoleon breached the peace terms.
- He was then further criticised for indecisive action.
Why was Henry Addington criticised as a war time leader?
- listed all men between 17 and 55 who were to be trained, armed and ready to fight.
- It was the biggest armed mobilisation attempted in Britain up to this date and cut across all social classes.
- It was estimated there were 800,000 men under arms.
When was the Levee en Masse Act passed and what was its impact?
- Introduced efficiencies in income tax to boost the war funds.
- Understood the importance of clearing up the corruption in the Navy Board if Britain were to defeat Napoleon by sea.
- Blocked French ports.
What achievements did Addington have as a war time leader?
- It was weak from the start and he suffered poor health.
- He had a huge psychological boost after Horatio Nelsons defeat of the French Trafalgar in October 1805.
- However the war on the continent continued to go Napoleons way and Britain's collation allies were soon in disarray.
Despite his achievements Addington was criticised and Pitt returned, how successful was Pitt at dealing with the war in his second ministry?
- 'lacked boldness of imagination to frame a comprehensive war strategy'
What comments did Asa Briggs make about Pitt as a war time leader?
- Failed to establish a clear strategy for dealing with the war and the third coalition crumbled as Britain's former ally Russia signed the Treaty of Tilsit with France.
- However it was the issue of Catholic Emancipation which brought Grenville down.
How successful was Lord Grenville at dealing with the wars with France?
- He had to pick up the pieces of a disastrous military expedition at Walcheren on the Dutch coast in 1809 which resulted in the failure to secure a viable continental coalition against France.
- Although Perceval ministry was regarded as weak some historians have given a positive assessment of his conduct of the war. Asa Briggs suggests his ministry 'provided the nucleus of the administration which won the war.'
How successful was Perceval at dealing with the wars with France?
- Napoleon couldn't invade Britain by sea so he tried to destroy Britain's trade as it was no self-sufficient and so Napoleon thought the country could be starved into surrender.
- 1806 Berlin Decree proclaimed Britain to be in a state of blockade and forbade European trade with Britain.
- The Milan Decree was an extension of the Berlin Decree and said any ships that entered British ports could be subsequently seized by French ships.
How did Napoleon attempt to destroy Britain economically?
Order in Council 1807
- Stated all countries that excluded British ships would be subject to a British blockade and imposed restrictions on neutral ships trading with blockaded ports.
- The Prime Minister Grenville supported free trade but was overruled and after much political disagreement the orders were extended.
How did Britain retaliate to the Berlin and Milan Decree's?
- Napoleon was harming his own farmers by preventing French wheat from entering Britain.
- Consequently during the harvest shortages of 1808-10 he allowed the export of French wheat under licence and sabotaged his own blockade.
What brought an end to the French blockage of British ships?
- Napoleon couldn't successfully deal off the entire European coast from British ships and so they continued to trade through certain ports.
- In 1808 Napoleon marched his troops through Spain and Portugal in order to plug the gap.
- He turned the Spaniards against him with bullying tactics and this marked the start of the peninsular war.
What was the peninsular war, when and why did it occur?
- Pitt decided to pay for the war by raising loans but money was borrowed in such large quantities a the start of the war that the price of the government stock fell and in 1797 the Bank of England had to suspend cash payments and instead issued paper currency to avert serious financial crisis and stem the fall in the gold reserves.
- By 1801 the national debt stood at £456million having risen from £228million at the start of the war.
- The sinking fund which was used by Pitt to cancel out the debt failed as a war time policy and the Debt continued to rise to £876million in 1815 and the interest continued to burden tax payers.
How did the war effect Britain financially?
- 1798 he introduced income tax for the first time.
- The tax was raised on all incomes over £60 with a maximum rate of 10%.
- It was made more efficient by Addington in 1803 and in 1805 Pitt raised income tax on all incomes over £150.
- In 1806 it began to offset some of the high costs of the war and helped the countries financial recovery.
- There were accusations it allowed for state interference in men's private affairs and was highly unpopular with the middle class however the income tax excluded the labouring classes.
How did Pitt try to tackle the cost of the war and the constantly accumulating debt?
- Industrialisation continued at an increasing rate in spite of the war and stimulated certain areas of the economy.
- The huge demand for armaments increased the demand for iron and coal.
- Watt's steam engine improved efficiency and the speed of manufacture.
- The army and Navy both required uniforms and blankets which stimulated the textiles industry - it was further boosted by demands for uniforms and blankets by Britain's continental allies and enemies including France.
- However merchants and manufacturers regarded the orders in council as an unnecessary government interference and it slowed the rate of the industrial pace in Britain.
- The US closed its ports both to Britain and France and clamoured for the orders to be removed.
- However with the excitement of reading with the newly emerging South American countries manufacturers over produced and in months faced the consequences of an economic collapse.
- On top of this there were two consecutive failed harvests, several banks collapsed and there was a shortage of cash and overproduction of bank notes and inflation.
How was Industry impacted by the war?
'The mass of people did not suffer as severely as would seem probable. The country was not overrun by hostile forces, Industry and commercial activity were not checked, but rather increased, and, although taxation was high, the produce of the land and of every article of manufacture being paid for in proportion, the war, except to fixed incomes, made a trifling difference'
- Basically the hardship of the war on the people was limited as a result of Britain's economic prosperity at the time.
What does William Alexander suggest about the social impact of the war?
- People on fixed incomes and the poor both in industrial towns and the countryside who could not afford basic necessities and were starving.
- Unemployment among hand-workers due to improvements in machinery - led to unrest in manufacturing districts such as Yorkshire, Lancashire and Derbyshire.
- 1808 handloom weavers petitioned for a minimum wage bill and when it was rejected there was serious rioting.
Who suffered due to the war?
- 1811 forget price rises which lasted until 1814
- wages fell behind prices making life hard for those on fixed incomes
What caused social hardship during the war?
- Landowners and Farmers benefited as their profits rose.
What social groups benefited as a result of the war?
- Lord Liverpool's 5 predecessors made contributions to strengthening Britain's position against Napoleon.
- Britain's sea power, military efforts in the Spanish Peninsular and economic blockade were wreaking Napoleon.
- Britain's export and re-export trade increased as it had a virtual monopoly in shipping goods across the world.
What were the positive aspects of Britain's condition by 1812?
- The development of a capitalist agricultural system led to rural depopulation.
- The population had increased from 10.5million in the 1801 census to 12million in the 1811 census.
How had Britain changed demographically by 1812?
- It was greatly influenced by Jeremy Benthams idea of political reform.
How was the nature of radicalism changing by 1812?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch.9 Economic developments 1812 - 1832
Ch.10 Social developments
Section 1 - Key Dates
C.11 Pressure for Change
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