AQA GCSE PE- Respiratory System
Terms in this set (36)
Role of Respiratory System
-Bring oxygen into the body to produce energy.
-Exhale carbon dioxide which is a waste product of exercise.
Two entry points for air
Nose and Mouth
Pathway of air
Nose/Mouth, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchiole, Alveoli
Two gases that are exchanged
Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen
The movement of gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
The distance travelled during diffusion.
Structure of Alveoli
-One cell wall thick, creating short diffusion pathway.
-Moist and extremely large surface area.
-Lots of capillaries around alveoli.
-High blood supply.
Concentration of gases at capillaries returning to lungs
-High in carbon dioxide, low in oxygen.
Concentration of gases at the alveoli
-High in oxygen, low in carbon dioxide.
Oxygen that combines with haemoglobin.
The process of breathing in.
The process of breathing out.
Mechanics of Inhalation
-Rib cage moves up and out
-Diaphragm flattens and moves downwards.
-Intercostal muscles contract, raising ribs up and pushing out sternum.
-Chest cavity increases in size.
-Air pressure in lungs reduces and air is sucked in.
Mechanics of Exhalation
-Lungs decrease in size.
-Rib cages moves down and in.
-Diaphragm relaxes becoming dome shaped.
-Intervostal muscles relax, lowering ribs and dropping sternum.
-Chest cavity reduces in size.
-Air pressure in lungs increases and air is pushed out.
Muscles that support inhalation during exercise
-Pectorals and sternocleidomastoid, raise sternum.
Muscles that support exhalation during exercise
-Abdominals pull rib cage down more quickly, forcing air out.
A measurement of the air capacity in lungs.
The amount of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal breath.
Expiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume.
The amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
The largest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest possible inhalation.
Total Lung Capacity
Tidal Volume and Exercise
Increases with exercise to inhale greater amounts of oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
Expiratory Reserve Volume and Exercise
Decreases during exercise.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume and Exercise
Decreases during exercise.
Residual Volume and Exercise
No change during exercise.
Composition of inhaled air
21% Oxygen, 79% Nitrogen 0.04% Carbon Dioxide
Composition of exhaled air
16% Oxygen, 79% Nitrogen, 4% Carbon Dioxide
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