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Human Biology - Topic 7 Respiratory system
Terms in this set (38)
The metabolic process in which living cells obtain energy (in the form of adenosine triphosphate, ATP) from the breakdown of molecules, particularly glucose.
Exchange of gases in the lung between the blood and the external environment.
Part of the upper respiratory tract by which air enters and leaves the body.
The opening at the back of the throat that serves as a common passageway for the digestive and respiratory systems.
A tube that connects the throat (pharynx) and voice box (larynx) to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. Also known as the windpipe.
The two main branches of the windpipe or trachea, leading to the lungs (singular, bronchus).
The respiratory organs that are located in the chest cavity; consisting of two elastic sacs with branching airways that allow air to be drawn into the body and expelled by a combination of muscular action and elastic recoil. They provide a large surface area where gaseous exchange occurs between the blood and the air.
The thin membranes lining the fluid-filled cavity (the pleural cavity) between the lungs and the inside of the thoracic (chest) wall (singular, pleura).
The parts of the lungs that conduct gas to and from the external environment.
Part of the respiratory zone structures, located at the end of the alveolar duct
Composed of the bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli in which gas exchange takes place during respiration.
A muscular wall involved in lung ventilation, separating the chest (thoracic) cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Nerve originating in the medulla of the brain that innervates the diaphragm.
External and internal muscles between the ribs that are involved in the movement of the rib cage during breathing.
Nerves that innervate the intercostal muscles
The pressure that one component of a mixture of gases would exert if it were alone in a container.
Chemical forces that hold liquids in their smallest surface area possible.
A phospholipid substance that breaks surface tension of water by attaching to the water molecules and preventing them from interacting with each other.
The ease with which the lungs and pleura expand and contract based on changes in pressure.
The friction that is generated when the air passes along the structures in the conduction and respiratory zones.
A test used to measure lung function.
Forced vital capacity (FVC)
Total volume of air that can be forcefully blown out.
Peak expiratory flow (PEF)
The maximum rate at which air is forcefully expired (litres per second).
Forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1)
The amount of air that is forcibly blown out within the first second of a spirometry test.
A globular iron-containing protein present in red blood cells, which binds oxygen at the lungs and transports it to the tissues. Some of the carbon dioxide transported from the tissues to the lungs is also carried by haemoglobin.
Haemoglobin bound to oxygen molecules. Oxyhaemoglobin transports oxygen from blood vessels in the lungs to the cells in the rest of the body
Haemoglobin that is not bound to oxygen
Oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve
'S'-shaped curve that dictates how the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen changes with different partial pressures of oxygen.
Influence of CO2 and acidicty on the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen.
Haemoglobin that is bound to carbon dioxide (HbCO2).
Influence of oxygen on haemoglobin transport of carbon dioxide.
Sickle cell anaemia
A genetic disorder linked to abnormal haemoglobin. A point mutation has replaced the amino acid glutamic acid with valine, disrupting the structure of haemoglobin. The abnormal haemoglobin crystallizes when deoxygenated, forming sickle-shaped red blood cells that tend to block capillaries.
A group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders that cause anaemia because of the decreased or absent synthesis of a globin chain of haemoglobin.
Receptors in the carotid artery (carotid bodies) and aorta (aortic bodies) of the heart that detect and respond to changes in partial pressure of oxygen.
rReceptors located on neurons within the medullary and pontine respiratory centres of the brain that detect differences in blood pH.
The areas of the medulla region in the brain that integrate sensory information from chemoreceptors monitoring the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. The respiratory centres send out appropriate signals to regulate the rate of contraction of the respiratory muscles (including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles).
Reduction in airflow.
A temporary cessation of breathing.
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