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Ancient Medical History, Medieval Medicine, Renaissance/ Early Modern Medicine, 19th Century Medicine
Terms in this set (49)
"Founder of Medicine" During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath was made that is still used today. He created the Four Humours.
1. Rejected religion and supernatural medicine
-onus is on the physician, not divine will
2. High Ethical standard: to help, or at least not to harm- Hippocratic Oath
1. Observe all
2. Gather observations without prejudice of theory or expectation
3. Study the patient rather than the disease - age, diet, sleeping habits
4. Evaluate honestly, learn probable outcomes of illness and tell the patient
5. Assist nature to heal patient (gentle therapies)
Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance. The Theory of Opposites. He worked as a doctor to gladiators to get real work experience and dissected animals.
Theory of opposites
The idea was that if you had too much phlegm you needed something hot and dry to bring this humour back into balance.
In this theory, humours existed as liquids within the body and were identified as blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.
These were in turn associated with the fundamental elements of air, water, earth and fire. It was further proposed that each of the humours was associated with a particular season of the year, during which too much of the corresponding humour could exist in the body - blood, for example, was associated with spring. A good balance between the four humours was essential to retain a healthy body and mind, as imbalance could result in disease. It is a traditional view looking for a natural reasoning.
The doctors were priests as well and relied heavily on religion
They used papyrus and honey which was full of minerals.
Believed it was religion based.
No sewage and they washed daily invented malaria nets.
The doctors varied by the individual as there was no boards or requirements to enter the profession.
They believed n the four senses of humour of balancing them and the book Herbarium.
Many causes including small creatures, the swamp and an imbalance.
They realized the importance of public health creating sewers and had bath houses.
The doctors varied by the individual as there was no boards or requirements to enter the profession yet good ones were trained from childhood.
Just starting into the four humours out of religion.
Blamed it on four humour imbalance.
eating properly, washing, cleaning their teeth, going for walks and keeping fit. This was closely linked to their theory of the four humours yet poor people could not do this so only rich people had good healthy.
The asclepion was the place were normal Greek citizens would go to find out if they were ill or not. They believed they were visited by Asclepius in the night. They weren't treated for illness given food water to keep well.
Greek god of healing
Egyptians truly believed that amulets had magical powers of protection and healing, and also brought good fortune. Promotes positive thinking.
type of complementary/alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders; also called herbalism. This is used over all years due to it being cheap and relatively easy to obtain
a surgical method from the Stone Age in which part of the skull was chipped away to provide an opening through which an evil spirit could escape
Egyptians Public Health
Public Health in Ancient Egypt. Essentially, public health in Ancient Egypt was non-existent. The Pharaoh and his government did nothing to protect the people from illness. However, Egyptians took great care to stay clean, most likely due to their religion, and washed twice a day, every night and before meals.
Roman Public Health
The Romans believed that Prevention of illness was more important than cure of illness.
They found higher deaths near swamps so they got people away from swamps and made temples around them to lessen deaths.
Swamps had clean water through aduequats.
Sewage system to remove waste and get better personal hygieene through public baths.
Greek Public Health
The Greek philosophy of 'Regimen' covered what people ate, drank, the types and amount of exercise that they took and how much sleep they had. This only affected the rich since the poor didn't have time to spend on this.
Theory and imprtance of the four humours.
humours or fluids: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile, and if these humours lost their natural balance, illness would result. because it encouraged doctors to look for natural causes of disease and to provide natural treatments.
Punishment from God
this is a common reason on why a lot of people believe they got the plague from, for their sins. This was bad as this caused religious cures rather than ones based on facts
Cause of Black Death
- Bubonic Plague (fleas on rats)
- Miasma (bad air)
- Punishment of God
- That the Jews were poisining the wells
- Alignments of planets
Influence of arabic medicine
Arab medicine was fr more advanced since they kept adding on the Greek and Roman ideas into Arabic and elaborating upon them. They also made many books so it was easily available information.
a man/woman believed to have supernatural powers of curing diseases and controlling spirits
lady of the manor
Often managed the estate when their husbands were away fighting or in court
Person in towns and villages who would offer traditional remedies and supernatural cures.
a person who prepared and sold medicines and drugs of a herbal form.
Told physician which parts of body were linked to astrological sign. Helped decide a cure or treatment.
Used human urine to help diagnose an illness
largely treated those suffering from incurable chronic or contagious diseases
required patients to pay fees for care
were only for those suffering from contagious diseases
were only for the wealthy
lepers; for poor (and sick) pilgrims; for the poor and infirm; and almshouses or bedehouses. Not for normally curing the sick but providing a safe housing with food and water.
Was not carried out by doctors but barber-surgeons who did many other jobs. They used wine as an antiseptic with no anaesthetics. Deth was often caused by pain, bleeding and infection. Very dirty,
Most famous English surgeon of the
period. He developed anaesthetics
and procedures to treat abscesses.
He charged the rich a lot and the poor free.
Medieval Towns Public Heath
Generally unclean. Yet many tried to clean and help keep health up.
bathhouses street cleaners
No water pipes
People drank unclean water
Human and animal waste in the street and water.
Black Death (1347-1351)
One of the most deadly pandemics in human history, widely thought to have been caused by Bubonic Plague.
Black Death (1347-1351) Public Health
Shows bad public health due to smaller outbreaks then a larger one which shows that it got so out of control and that is was never being cured or obliterated.
William Harvey (1578-1657)
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood, saying it was pumped around by the heart
Faced heavy criticism as it went against Galen
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Wrote one of the most influential human anatomy books (De Humani Corporis fabrica) and was considered the father of modern human anatomy.
Jonannes Gutenberg (1400- 1468)
Invented the printing press in the 15th century, thisinvention which revolutionized the ability to print information which in turn affected the speed of the spread of information itself, which meant medical information could be spread wider and cheaper for more people.
Ambroise Pare (Renaissance) 1510-1590
-Barber surgeon who treated battlefield injuries from gunshot wounds
-Use ligature instead of cauterisation
- created a soothing cream from terpentinr, rose oil and egg whites- speeded up healing, soothed pain and it was nicer than boiling oil.
The selling of useless medical treatments or products. Many people would pay money that either provides a mental cure (makes you think yor better) or provides short term pain relief.
- Hospitals start to treat people and they are built by the rich.
- Many people saw it as their duty to give back to the community- donating to or building hospitals
- The foundling Hospital 1741 was a charitable institution for the orphans.
John Hunter (1728-1793)
Founder of scientific surgery.
He said the best way for deep wounds to heal is to leave them be. He was a army doctor and was a very good surgeon
Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689)
Believed that observation should drive the study of the course of disease
Described and distinguished different diseases including some psychological illnesses
Advanced useful treatments and remedies including exercise, fresh air, and a healthy diet, which other physicians rejected at the time
The Great Plague (1665
One of England's worst outbreaks, killing about 1/3 of the population.
Belived to come from Sweden
Same cures as The black Death but epople have come for more scientific reasonings.
Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
Carried out an experiment of inserting pus of cowpox spot into a child, testing a theory of a mild disease. After Further testing the child was immune. He published the idea needing more proof so got an experiment of several more children and published.
He was ridiculed a lot.
Got a grant of 30,000 pounds to continue research and create a vaccination clinic.
Black Death and Great plague
- 50 per cent of UK which was est. 1.5 million within a year
- 75-200 million in Europe
- More religious based disease so people went to church with infected people.
-Only mainly affected London
- 100,000 dead as it lived in the slums with the rats
- Preventative method of isolating contaminated
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Showed microbes caused fermentation and spoilage
Disproved spontaneous generation of microorganisms
Demonstrated what is now known as Germ Theory of Disease.
The idea that disease was caused by the spread of living organisms that could be controlled.
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
Established Koch's postulates - a sequence of experimental steps that verified the germ theory
Identified cause of anthrax, TB, and cholera
Developed pure culture methods. Yet did not cure nor prevent anything
Pasteur and vaccination (1880s)
- Pasteur found that certain microbes that lost their ability to cause disease due to repeated culturing in the lab could be used to generate immunity against disease.
- Developed anthrax, cholera and rabies vaccines.
James Simpson 1847
- Causes dizziness and unconsciousness
- Made to reduce pain during child birth
- Easy administration
- Causes bold and erotic language
- Must be used by Professional
- Can cause death (Hannah Green)
Joseph Lister (1827-1912)
1. Used carbolic acid on wounds to kill germs
2. First doctor to use an antiseptic during surgery
3. Created aseptic surgery.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ancient Medical History
Renaissance/ Early Modern Medicine
19th Century Medicine
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