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GCSE, Urban Environments
Terms in this set (59)
the ease with which one location can be reached from another; the degree to which people are able to obtain goods and services, such as housing and healthcare.
the concentration of people, buildings and activities at a specific location.
land that has been previously used, abandoned and now awaits a new use.
an area of land set aside for offices and high-tech companies
Central business districts (CBD):
the commercial centre of a town and city in which shops, offices and other services are concentrated.
the exchange of information and 'remote' contact between people
the daily movement of people from their homes to their place of work
acute overcrowding caused by high densities of traffic, business and people.
a large urban area formed by the growing together of once separate towns
the movement of people and employment from major cities to smaller cities and towns, as well as to rural areas.
when the standard of living and quality of life fall below a minimum level
a part of the suburbs which has become more city-like through the agglomeration of offices, shops and factories.
the degree to which an area is free from air, water, noise and visual pollution.
a group of people united by a common characteristic such as race, language or religion.
an area of wealthy housing protected by a perimeter wall or fence, with controlled entrances for residents and their visitors.
the movement of middle-class people back into rundown, inner-city areas, resulting in the improvement of their housing, built environment and image.
land that has not been used for urban development
High-class residential area:
an area inhabited by wealthy people
the difficulty of reaching places due to remoteness, terrain and lack of transport.
land specifically set aside for factories and service industries.
the transport networks and the water, sewage and communication systems that are vital to people and their settlements and businesses.
the old part of a town or city immediately outside the historic nucleus
any use made by people of the Earth's land surface
the market price of a piece of land; what people or businesses are prepared to pay for owning and occupying it
Low-class residential area:
a part of a settlement where housing conditions are poor and lived in by the poorest members of society.
a city or urban area with a population larger than 10 million
a term loosely used to describe well-off people who do non-manual work, often in the professions.
a city or urban area with a population larger than 1 million
large areas mainly occupied by shops and located on or near the urban fringe
an alternative mode of flexible passenger transport that does not follow fixed routes or timetables. Typically mini-buses are used. Such services in LICs are frequently operated as part of the informal sector.
Peak land-value intersection:
the location within an urban area where land values are highest. It usually coincides where major transport routes converge on the centre
an area remote or isolated from its core and generally lagging in terms of development and influence
the presence of chemicals, dirt or other substances which have harmful or poisonous effects on aspects of the environment, such as rivers and the air.
see Urban rebranding
the demolition of old buildings to make way for new ones
see Urban regeneration
see Urban re-imaging
the impact of urban people moving to and residing in rural areas
making available a range of commercial, professional and social services, from shops and legal advice to schools and medical treatment.
are the non-material equivalent of goods. They mainly involve specially trained people, such as doctors, dentists, solicitors, hoteliers and hairdressers, doing things for other people as a way of making a living.
any form of human habitation from a single dwelling to a megacity.
an area of slum housing built of salvaged materials and located either on the city edge or within the city on hazardous ground, previously avoided by urban development.
when the well-being and quality of life of people falls below a minimum level.
the clustering together of people with similar characteristics (class, ethnicity, wealth) into separate residential areas.
a group of people sharing the same characteristics, such as income level, type of employment and class.
a person, group of people or organisation that has direct or indirect interest in a particular business or situation, and are able to influence what happens.
see Shanty town.
the outskirts of a town and city produced by suburbanisation and in which residence is the major land use.
the outward spread of the urban area, often at lower densities compared with the older parts of a town or city.
a huge retailing outlet or supermarket, usually located on or close to the urban fringe.
the outer edge of the built-up area of a town or city.
Urban land market:
the buying and selling of land and buildings in a town or city.
people who make important decisions affecting urban areas, such as planners, politicians and developers.
the regeneration and re-imaging of old urban areas, often involving an economic revival based on leisure and recreation.
the investment of capital in the revival of old, urban areas by either improving what is there or clearing it away and rebuilding.
changing the image of an urban area and the way people view it.
Urbanisation of suburbs:
the process whereby the suburban ring becomes more urban as a result of increasing building densities, building on vacant plots and introducing non-residential land uses.
growth in the percentage of a population living and working in urban areas.
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