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Causes of disease FULL
Terms in this set (74)
Punishment from God
Most popular medieval explanation of the cause of disease.
Test of faith
Religious explanation for the cause of disease prompted by the Biblical story of Job who Satan bet God would curse God if he lost all he had - including his health.
Created the theory of the Four Humours.
5th Century BC
Hisppocrates developed the Theory of the Four Humours.
Roman physician who wrote lots of medical books promoted by the medieval Church.
Astrology (alignment of the planets)
Supernatural explanation for disease which involved physicians using star signs and consulting star charts when diagnosing illness.
Used by medieval physicians to diagnose disease and identify the best time to carry out treatment and the part of the body to focus on.
Imbalance of the humours
Hippocrates' and Galen's explanation of what 'illness' or 'disease' actually was. Believed by ordinary people during the medieval period and medical renaissance.
Miasma (bad air)
Believed by medieval and renaissance people to cause the humours to become imbalanced.
Used by medieval physicians to help them diagnose which of the four humours was out of balance.
Year when the Black Death arrived in England.
Rejected the theory of the four humours and said that the body was a chemical system which had to be balanced and could be imbalanced by chemicals coming into it from outside.
Paracelsus theorised disease was an imbalance of chemicals inside the body caused by miasma.
English physician who stressed the importance of observing and recording symptoms in order to identify 'species' of disease - lots of people having the same imbalance of humours. Known as the "English Hippocrates".
Thomas Sydenham's book published in 1676 which theorised that there were 'species' of disease when lots of people had the same imbalance of humours caused by external factors (miasma).
Invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg (in Germany).
Invented the printing press in c1440.
Group of scientists and philosophers who wanted to promote scientific understanding through experiments and sharing and debating ideas.
The Royal Society was founded (held its first meeting).
The Royal Society received its royal charter from King Charles II.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek's drawing of 'animalcules' was published in the Royal Society's journal, Philosophical Transactions.
Published a book in which he he theorized that disease was caused by seeds spread in the air.
Fracastoro published 'On Contagion', theorising that disease was caused by seeds spread in the air.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Used his new microscope to become the first person to see bacteria (called them animalcules).
Outbreak of the Great Plague
Louis Pasteur published his 'Germ Theory'.
To kill all living micro-organisms (e.g. bacteria) in or on an object, for example by heating it.
French scientist who proved his 'germ theory' that germs cause decay, not the other way round.
Pasteur published his 'Germ Theory of Infection'.
English physician who continued to promote the theory of spontaneous generation throughout the 19th Century, ignoring germ theory.
Robert Koch identified the specific bacteria causing tuberculosis.
Assistant to Robert Koch who invented the petri dish.
The 'father of bacteriology' who identified the specific bacteria causing different diseases.
Agar jelly, staining using industrial dyes
Invented by Robert Koch to make it easier to study bacteria under the microscope.
Discovery of X-rays by William Röntgen.
Mistaken idea that germs were created by decaying matter. Believed during the 19th Century.
Increasingly accepted from 1861 to be the cause of disease. Now known to be a major cause of disease.
Observation of symptoms
Became the main method of diagnosing disease during the medical renaissance and into the 18th and 19th Centuries.
Development of the first electron microscope by Ruska and Knoll.
Franklin and Wilkins created images of DNA using X-rays.
Watson and Crick published their discovery of the structure of DNA.
Launch of the Human Genome Project.
First draft of the Human Genome Project's map of the human genome.
Now believed to be the cause of some diseases e.g. Huntingdon's, haemophilia.
E.g. smoking, diet, alcohol, unprotected sex.
Now known to be a cause of disease, or to increase the likelihood of developing a disease.
Blood tests, scans and monitors
Main methods of diagnosing disease in Modern Britain.
Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll
Invented the electron microscope in 1931.
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
Created the first images of DNA in 1951.
James Watson and Francis Crick
Discovered the double-helix structure of DNA in 1953.
The science of understanding the structure of the body.
The study of planets and how they might influence the lives of people.
The attitude of wanting to avoid change.
Diagnose (n. diagnosis)
Decide what is wrong with a patient.
Dissect (n. dissection)
Cut up dead bodies to study them.
A long, thin, flexible tube that has a light source and camera at one end used to take images of the digestive system
A widespread outbreak of disease e.g. the Black Death, Great Plague, Cholera
The liquids believed to make up the human body: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile
The complete set of DNA containing all the information needed to build a particular organism
Diseases caused by genetic factors i.e. they can be passed on from parents to their children
The formation of disease-causing germs or micro-organisms
any living organism that is too small to be seen without a microscope
A doctor of medicine who has trained at university
The attitude of wanting change
Based on reasons
Not religious or in any way connected with spiritual beliefs
Punishment from God (or test of faith)
Imbalance of the four humours
Alignment of the planets (astrology)
Believed to be the causes of disease in Medieval England
Imbalance of the four humours
Believed to be the causes of disease in the Medical Renaissance
Believed to be the causes of disease in the 18th and 19th Centuries
Believed (correctly!) to be the causes of disease in Modern Britain
Key individuals in Medieval England
Anthony van Leeuwenhoek
Key individuals in the Medical Renaissance
Key individuals in the 18th and 19th Centuries
Ernst Ruska & Max Knoll
Rosalind Franklin & Maurice Wilkins
James Watson & Francis Crick
Key individuals in Modern Britain
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