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Key terms chapter 1
Terms in this set (49)
Name used to describe the muscular system and the skeletal system working together
Bones that meet at a joint to enable movement
An area of the body where two or more articulating bones meet
Increase in the angle of bones at a joint
To decrease in the angle of a joint.
Movement of a bone or limb away from the midline of the body
Movement of of a bone or limb towards the midline of the body
A circular movement around a joint
Movement at the ankle joint that points the toes and increases the angle at the ankle joint
Toes point at ground
Movement at the ankle joint that flexes the foot upwards and decreases the angle at the ankle joint
Points towards the sky/ upwards
Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
It's role is to transfer the effort created by a contracting muscle to the bone, resulting in the movement of the bone.
Agonist (prime mover)
The muscle or group of muscles that contract to create movement.
It works in an antagonistic pair with the antagonist
The muscle or group of muscles that relax to allow a movement to take place.
It works in an antagonistic pair with the agonist
A muscle contraction where the muscle changes length when it contracts, resulting in limb movement.
They can be concentric (when the muscle shortens) or eccentric (when the muscle lengthens)
A muscle contraction where the length of the muscle does not change when it contracts. There is no limb movement as a result.
The name used to describe he respiratory system and the cardiovascular system working together
The process where oxygen from the air in the alveoli moves into the blood in the capillaries, while the carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the air in the alveoli.
The protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen (as oxyhemoglobin) and carbon dioxide around the body
A chemical formed when haemoglobin bonds with oxygen
Small air sacs in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place
A network of microscopic blood vessels. They are only one cell thick
The distance travelled during diffusion. The diffusion pathway is short in gaseous exchange
The process of breathing in
The process of breathing out
Expiratory reserve volume
The amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume. It decreases during exercise
The amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume. It decreases during exercise
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation. There is no change during exercise
The normal amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath. It increases with exercise
The total volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after maximal inhalation.
Blood that contains a low concentration of oxygen
Blood containing a high concentration of oxygen.
The rhythmic throbbing of the arteries as they pump blood around the body. You can measure heart rate using pulse
The flowing backwards of blood. Valves in the veins prevent backflow.
When the heart relaxes and the chambers fill with blood
When the heart contracts and empty's of blood
One cycle of diastole and systole
The pressure the blood is under.
Systolic reading measure pressure heart under when contracts.
Diastolic reading measure pressure heart under when relaxes.
The narrowing of a blood vessels internal diameter to reduce blood flow. Happens in exercise so less blood is delivered to inactive areas
Widening of the internal diameter of blood vessel to increase blood flow. Happens during exercise so that mor blood is delivered to active areas
Stroke volume (SV)
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one cycle
Cardiac output (Q)
The volume ejected from the heart per minute
Q = SV x HR
Working at low to moderate intensity so that the body has time to use oxygen for energy production and can last for a long period of time
The amount of energy needed to complete an activity.
High intensity = large amount of energy
Low intensity = less energy
intense physical activity that requires little oxygen but uses short bursts of energy and can only be obtained for a short period of time
A mild poison and waste product of anaerobic respiration
EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption)
The amount of oxygen needed to recover and repay oxygen debt and remove lactic acid after anaerobic exercise has stopped.
DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness)
pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise
Extreme tiredness, exhaustion due to build up of lactic acid after exercise
When a muscle is trained, small tears are created. As they heal they become thicker and increase in size/ become stronger
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