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IB Chemistry HL topic 10/20 - organic chemistry
Terms in this set (61)
With two hydrogen atoms on the neighboring carbon atom (next to the hydroxyl group).
Can be oxidized to aldehydes (by loss of hydrogen) and then to corbaxylic acids (by gain of oxygen).
Ethanol can be exodized to ethanal by the orange Cr2O7^2- ion, which itself becomes reduced to the green Cr^3- ion
When one hydrogen atoms on the neighboring carbon atom.
Can be oxidized to ketones (by loss of hydrogens)
With no hydrogen atoms attached to the neighboring carbon atom. Cannot be oxidized further.
Hexagonal shape with delocalized pi bonds.
Undergo substitution rather than addition reactions
Boiling and melting point
Depend in intermolecular forces. Ther greater the intermol. forces, the higher the m.p. and b.p.
Yellow/orange bromine is decolorized when added to an alkene due to addition reaction.
Used to test for alkenes
A cation in which the carbon carries most of the positive charge. Can be formed during SN1 substitution
Group 4 element which always forms 4 covalent bonds, as it has 4 electrons in its valence shell
An asymmetric carbon atom, i.e. has four different funcional groups attached to it
The geometric isomer in which the similar groups are on the same side of the double bond.
The immediate neighborhood (neighboring and next carbon) of a hydrogen atom
Process by which an alcohol and a carboxylic acid are converted into an ester and water, often with acid catalysis
Bond breaking in which the more electronegative of the two atoms joined by the bond takes both of the electrons
Excess energy from impact of electrons forming ion in mass spectrometer will aften cause molecule to fragment. The mass of the fregments can indicate details about structure of original molecule
A species containing at least one unpaired electron, as a result of homolytic fission.
No functional group
IUPAC: -anoic acid
IUPAC: alkyl acid-oate (e.g. methyl propanoate)
-X (i.e. -Cl, -Br, -I)
One alkyne group attached to the carbon atom bonded to the halogen.
Undergo SN2 mechanism in nucleophilic substitution
Three alkyl groups attached to the carbon atom bonded to the halogen.
Undergo SN2 mechanism in nucleophilic substitution
A group of compounds that can be described by a general formula.
Have similar chemical properties, but gradually changing physical properties.
When all other factors remain constant, increased molar mass means increased intermolecular forces.
Addition of water
Conpounds containing only carbon and hydrogen
Addition of hydrogen. Can be used to reduce number o double bonds in polyunsaturated vegetable oils present in margarine, causing it to become a solid at room temperature
Process by which a molecule is broken down by water
Different compounds that have the same molecular formula
Functional group isomers
Where the isomers contain different functional groups
Hydrocarbon chain isomers
Where there is a difference in the structure of the hydrocarbon chain
Where a molecule shows optical activity in its mirror images. Occurs when there is one or more chiral centers.
Where the position of the functional group is different
where the molecules have a different spatial arrangement of atoms and hence different 3D shapes. Subdivided into geometric and optical isomers (enantiomers)
Where the atoms have a different structural formula altogether. Subdivided into positional, hydrocarbon chain and functional group isomers.
Pre-ignition, a result of a great number of free radicals. The greater the octane rating, the less likely it is that knocking occurs.
Knocking can also be reduced by antiknock agents, such as lead. Unfortunately, lead is poisonous when released into atmosphere
A unimolecular process by which a halogenalkane undergoes nucleophilic substitution.
A two-step mechanism: a rate-determining step in which the bond between the carbocation and the halogen are broken, followed by a step in which the nucleophile is attracted to the carbocation.
Faster than SN2, as the formation of the intermediate carbocation is faster then the SN2 route which involves a transition state with relatively high activation energy
A bimolecular process by which a haloenalkane undergoes nucleophilic substitution. Mechanism involves formation of a transition state which involves both of the reactants.
Components of a polymer
The species that donates the electron pair in an organic chemical reaction.
A nucleophile is also a Lewis base.
Typical nucleophiles are CN-, OH- and NH3
Substitution that occurs with a halogenalkane reaction with a nucleophile
Can rotate the plane polarization in opposite directions. Enantiomers are optically active
The chemistry of carbon compounds
Gigantic molecule made up of monomers
Forming a polymer by addition of monomers
Forming a polymer by substitution reaction between monomers, each having two functional groups
A strong oxidizing agent
A reaction in which the reactant is added across a C=C bond, converting it to a C-C bond.
Addition reactions with water required an H2SO4 catalyst.
Addition reactions with hydrogen use Ni as catalyst.
A reaction in which one group is substituted for another.
Substitution reactions with halogenalkanes are nucleophilic substitutions.
Benzene does not undergo substitution reactions as its pi bonds are delocalized
A condenser which causes any vapor produced to condenxe and returns to the flask and continues to react.
If the carboxylic acid is desired from the oxidation of a primary alcohol, this must be done under reflux.
On the other hand, if the aldehyde is desired, this can be distilled from the reaction mixture as soon as it is formed.
Containing only single bonds. Alkanes are saturated
separating ions according to mass
Analyzing the bonds present within a molecule by sending infrared light through it, causing the bonds to absorb radiation of characteristic frequencies
Analysis of hydrogen environments to deduce the structure of a molecule.
Measured in ppm relative to TMS
The geometric isomer in which the similar groups are on different sides of the double bond.
Containing double bonda.
Alkenes are unsaturated.
Can be tested for by bromination.
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