Terms in this set (28)
the major integrating link between the nervous system and endrocrine system.
-receives input from cortex, thalamus, limbic system and internal organs
-controls the pituitary gland with different releasing and inhibiting hormones
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Mainly controlled by hypothalamus (hypophysis)
-the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Pituitary gland division
Adenohypophysis- anterior- 75% of the total weight of the gland.
Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
Anatomically and functionally connected to hypothalamus by blood vessels the form a portal system aka hypophyseal portal system.
-cells are responsible for the synthesis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) / luteotropic hormone (LTH) and ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH
Somatotroph- GH, stimulates kidney and liver to synthesise and secrete somatomedin, which stimulates the growth of long bones.
Thyrotroph- TSH, stimulates growth of thyroid epithelial cells and release of thyroid hormones to the blood.
Gonadotroph-LH and FSH
Lactotroph- prolactin, milk production
Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
Stores and releases oxytocin and vasopressin produced in the hypothalamus
Lack of hypothalamic stimulus
Hypopituitarism lack of:
GH = dwarfism in young people
TSH = hypothyroidism
FSH/LH = loss of libido, amenorrhoea
ACTH = malaise, life-threatening
- Pituitary tumours
- Infiltration (sarcoidosis)
- Postpartum haemorrhage (Sheehan's syndrome)
Hormone assays: basal or stimulation tests
Imaging studies e.g. CT scans (X-rays)
hormone replacement therapy:
- Clinically, in women, galactorrhoea, menstrual irregularities, or infertility
- In men, galactorrhoea and erectile dysfunction
The anterior pituitary manufactures seven hormones.
Major pituitary hormones and their target organs
is the result of too much of the hormone cortisol in the body
Cushings Syndrome treatment?
surgery to remove tumor, drug or radiation therapy, total adrenalectomy
-Most common cause is Klinefelters syndrome
Sparce hair, undeveloped skeletal muscles, long arms and legs (due to delayed closure of endothelial plates)
Adult onset will cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility, decreased cognitive skills, mood changes, sleep disturbances
condition in which the adrenal cortex underproduces necessary hormones
is due to disease in the thyroid,
is represented by high TSH levels
less common; it is due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease,
and TSH levels are low.
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Primary-- Addison's disease
Secondary-- Hypothalamic or pituitary
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
Addison's disease treatment
give a steroid, chronic steroid therapy
Mechanism controlling anterior pituitary gland
-Disorders of the Hypothalamus
Cysts derived from developmental process
-Benign but increase in size as a result of cholesterol rich fluid accumulation
- Surgical excision of cyst
- Irradiation to prevent recurrence
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