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The costs are the travel time to the polling station, the length of time queuing, knowing your single vote wont change the results (i.e there's not been an election on one vote since 1928). The benefits could be if that person feels as if it's their citizens right to vote. If this gives them utility that is higher than the costs then they should vote according to the self-interest standard. If not, they shouldn't vote.

Example: Linda does feel like it's their citizens right to vote, her utility function is given as:

U = 2M+100V

Where M is monetary value of annual consumption, V is 1 if she votes and 0 if she doesn't vote. Linda works at a job for £50per hour and would have to spend 30 minutes getting too and from the polling station, how long must the line be before she will deicide not to vote?

U = 2M+100V

Where M is monetary value of annual consumption, V is 1 if she votes and 0 if she doesn't vote. Linda works at a job for £50per hour and would have to spend 30 minutes getting too and from the polling station, how long must the line be before she will deicide not to vote?

Need to find where the utility of working = utility gained from voting, at this level is the maximum time she is willing to take off of work to vote, getting the same utility.

Voting will always give her a Utility of 100

Working 30 minutes (no queue time) = 2x25+100x0 = 50 Utility

Working 1 hour (30 mins queue time) =

2x50+100x0 = 100 Utility

Working 1 hour 30 mins (1 hour queue time =

2x75+100x0 = 150 Utility

Utility of working equals the utility of voting where the queueing time is 30 minutes, this is her maximum queueing time as any longer queues than this will mean her utility gained from work will exceed her utility gained from voting.

Voting will always give her a Utility of 100

Working 30 minutes (no queue time) = 2x25+100x0 = 50 Utility

Working 1 hour (30 mins queue time) =

2x50+100x0 = 100 Utility

Working 1 hour 30 mins (1 hour queue time =

2x75+100x0 = 150 Utility

Utility of working equals the utility of voting where the queueing time is 30 minutes, this is her maximum queueing time as any longer queues than this will mean her utility gained from work will exceed her utility gained from voting.

Her indifference curves are negatively sloped, this shows opportunity cost, i.e if you want more of one good you need to give up some of the other. Her indifference curve also show MRS, so as she has more of one good she is willing to give up more of it to gain some of the other.

When the state provide education this is acting as a price change for her child's consumption. It is making consumption for her child cheaper. Let's say after the education she only needs to pay 80% of her consumption on her child than what she did before but gaining the same things. I.e the price of £1 of consumption on her child is now 80p. We can also model this the same way.

When the state provide education this is acting as a price change for her child's consumption. It is making consumption for her child cheaper. Let's say after the education she only needs to pay 80% of her consumption on her child than what she did before but gaining the same things. I.e the price of £1 of consumption on her child is now 80p. We can also model this the same way.

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