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AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography | Urban Issues and Challenges
Terms in this set (37)
An increase in the proportion (percentage) of people living in urban areas
How much of the world's population live in urban areas?
More than 50% (3.9 billion people), and this is increasing
How does the rate of urbanisation differ between countries?
It differs between poorer and richer countries
Where are the fastest rates of urbanisation?
In LICs - not many of the population currently live in urban areas
What are NEEs?
Newly Emerging Economies - economic development increasing rapidly
What are LICs?
Less economically developed countries
Where are the slowest rates of urbanisation?
HICs - many of the population already live there as urbanisation happened earliest, and some people desiring a better quality of life are moving away
Give 3 examples of HICs
Give 8 examples of NEEs
BRICs - Brazil, Russia, India, China
MINTs - Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey
Give 3 examples of LICs
What is a push factor?
Something which encourages people to leave an area
What is a pull factor?
Something that encourages people to move to an area
Give 4 push factors
Natural disasters- people can't afford to repair property and farmland
Mechanisation of agricultural equipment - farms require fewer workers so there are fewer jobs
Desertification- makes land unproductive so people can no longer support themselves
Conflict or war - causes people to flee their homes
Give 4 pull factors
Better employment opportunities- often more jobs and more highly paid jobs available
Improved health care and education
To join other family members who have already moved
Improved quality of life - e.g. entertainment
What other factor affects urbanisation?
Natural increase - the difference between the number of births and number of deaths in an area over a given time period (is usually positive, ie. birth rate higher than death rate)
Usually young people who move to a city to find work - have children here, increases city population
Better healthcare here allows people to live longer, increasing city population again
Define a megacity
An urban area with over 10 million people living there, e.g. Mumbai
How many megacities are there in the world?
What proportion of megacities are in LICs and NEEs?
Where is Lagos?
Nigeria, East Africa
Define urban sprawl
The unplanned and uncontrolled spreading of cities into surrounding regions
What is the population of Lagos?
Over 21 million
What is the importance of Lagos?
It is the main financial centre for the whole of West Africa
It was the capital of Nigeria until 1991
It is the focal point for trade and commerce
What causes urban sprawl in Lagos?
More than 275,000 migrants arrive each year, creating an outwards urban sprawl into the surrounding countryside
This is also affected by natural increase
Social opportunities in Lagos
Healthcare - more hospitals and medical treatments available
Education - 68% of population get secondary education, not even 60% get primary in rural areas
Resources - electricity for cooking and lighting (and allows business development) and water treatment plants - safe piped water
Economic opportunities in Lagos
Rapid growth - many construction jobs, e.g. building the new commercial centre, Eko Atlantic
Lagos is home many of the country's banks, government departments and manufacturing industries (e.g. making food and drink). There are two major ports and a fishing industry.
Lagos also has a thriving film and music industry-'Nollywood' films are very popular
What is the average population density in Lagos?
20,000 people per km2
Social challenges in Lagos
Over 60 % of the city 's population live in slums , eg . Makoko .
Houses in Makoko are flimsy, wooden huts built on stilts in the lagoon.
There is only one primary school in Makoko and many families can't afford to send their children to school.
Communal toilets are shared by 15 households and most of the waste goes straight into the lagoon below - it's always full of rubbish and raw sewage. This causes health problems, e.g. cholera.
Water can be bought in Makoko from a communal water point but that can be up to 3 km away and the only electricity comes from illegal connections that often cut out
There are high levels of crime in Makoko- the slum is self-policed by gangs called Area Boys'
What percentage of Lagos' population lives in squatter settlements?
Environmental challenges in Lagos
Only about 40 % of rubbish is officially collected and there are large rubbish dumps containing toxic waste
Waste disposal and emissions from factories are not controlled, leading to air and water pollution.
Traffic congestion is really bad- many face 2 hour commutes in rush hours known as the 'go slow'
Economic challenges in Lagos
There aren't enough formal jobs for all the migrants
They have to work in the informal economy, making money any way they can, e.g. by scavenging in the Olusosun rubbish dump for items to sell
How much do people working in the informal economy get paid per hour?
Less than $1.25
Define informal economy
The type of employment done without the official knowledge of the government and therefore without paying taxes. 2/3 of the world's workers are employed here
Define urban planning
Urban planning is the process that seeks to control the development of cities through local regulations and direct interventions, to fulfill a number of objectives, such as mobility, quality of life and sustainability
Solutions to Lagos problems
Self help schemes - government provide basic building materials to get people out of slums
Slum demolition- government build cheap flats and demolish slums - creates housing and jobs
Water street vendors - more water and more jobs
More infrastructure, e.g. cable cars in Curitiba, Brazil
An idea for urban planning
Floating communities - house people using the vast area of water surrounding Lagos
The 2014 Makoko floating school is an example - it provides education for up to 60 children and also acts as a community centre
Adaptations of floating school
Photovoltaic cells on roof
Floating platform - can rise with rising sea levels (predicted to rise 1m)
Rainwater collected in base - prepared for rising water shortages
Local building materials - reduces transmission CO2 and creates jobs for community
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