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Make It Stick
Terms in this set (80)
acquiring knowledge and skills and having them readily available from memory so you can make sense of future problems and opportunities
Three fundamental aspects of learning are:
1. To be useful, learning requires memory so that what's learned is still there later when we need it
2. We need to keep learning and remembering all our lives
3. Learning is an acquired skill and the most effective strategies are counterintuitive
Learning is deeper and more durable when it's ___________.
We are ______________ of when we're learning well and when we're not.
__________________ and __________________ are the most common (but also among the least productive) study strategies of learners.
Rereading text, massed practice
___________________ is a more effective learning strategy than rereading or massed practice.
When you ______________________ at a task and get a little rusty between sessions, retrieval is harder, but the effort produces more durable learning.
space out practice
Trying to solve a problem _____________________ leads to better learning, even when errors are made in the attempt.
before being taught the solution
True or false: the idea that you learn better when you receive instruction in your preferred learning style is supported by empirical research
When you are adept at extracting the ____________________ that differentiate types of problems, you can more successfully pick out the right solutions in unfamiliar situations.
Learning to extract the underlying principles that differentiate problems is best acquired through _____________________________ practice.
interleaved and varied
We are all susceptible to _____________ that can hijack our judgment about what we know and what we can do.
All new learning requires a foundation of ___________________.
If you engage in mechanical repetition, you quickly hit the limit of what you can keep in mind; however, if you practice _________________, there is no known limit to how much you can learn.
________________________ is the process of giving new material meaning by expressing it in your own words and connecting it with what you already know.
Putting new knowledge into a ______________________ helps learning.
People who learn to __________________________ from new material and ____________________________ that they can connect to prior knowledge show an advantage in learning complex mastery.
extract the key ideas, organize them into a mental model
Quizzing strengthens learning. (True or False) Explain your answer.
True. Quizzing tells you what you haven't mastered, arrests forgetting, and strengthens your ability to connect to prior knowledge.
Giving new material meaning by expressing it in your own words and connecting it with what you already know is called____
elaboration. Some examples of elaboration are to create a metaphor or a visual image of the content.
What effect does cramming have?
higher scores on immediate test but lower on delayed
What type of practice involves cycling back to key skills sets in a seemingly random sequence?
interleaved practice. This type of practice adds layers of meaning and context.
Trying to solve a problem before being taught the solution leads to better learning. (True or False)
Which of these study strategies is the most productive?
a. Rereading the textbook
b. Repeated intentionally practicing of the new content
c. Using flashcards to test your understanding
d. Reviewing your notes
c. Using flash cards to test your understanding
You learn better when you receive instruction in the form consistent with your preferred learning style. (True or False)
False. Research does not support this. It is more important that the mode of instruction match the nature of the subject being taught.
We are the best judge of what study strategy will work best. (True or False)
False. Learning is best when we struggle. The tendency is to see the struggle as a negative rather than a positive.
It is better to solve a problem than memorize a solution. (True or False)
Students do better when given room to struggle with difficulty. (True or False)
Taking a few minutes to review what has been learned from experience and asking yourself questions is referred to as ________
What are the cognitive activities involved in reflection that causes reflection to lead to stronger learning?
retrieval, elaboration, and generation
The act of trying to answer a question or attempt to solve a problem rather than being presented with the information or solution is known as _____
What study strategy leads to the strongest learning and ability to recall?
Being asked to supply an answer or a solution to something that is new to you results in the most effective learning.
Writing and short essay and fill in the blank are both more powerful than multiple choice.
What are three ways of mixing up your practice?
Which type of learner is more successful in transferring learning to unfamiliar situations?
high structure learner or low structure learner
rule learner or example learner
high structure learners and rule learners are more successful in transferring learning to unfamiliar situations
Describe an example of dynamic testing.
Dynamic testing involves discovering your weakness and focusing on improving yourself in those areas. Example: Create a training event and ask colleagues to be your test audience later providing you with feedback on how to improve.
Why is learning strengthened when you space your practice sessions?
If a little forgetting occurs you will have to work harder to reconstruct what you had already studied, resulting in stronger connections to other knowledge and recent learning.
Why is it better to interleave your learning practice?
Mixing problem types increases your ability to discriminate between types and identify unifying characteristics between types.
Elaboration (Learning Theory)
The process of giving new material meaning by expressing it in your own words and connecting it with what you already know.
Working on multiple skills in parallel
A mental representation of some external reality.
The possession of ready knowledge and the conceptual understanding of how to use it.
The Forgetting Curve
Hypothesizes how information is lost over time when there is no attempt to retain it.
Concept that practicing retrieval makes learning stick far better than re-exposure to the original material does.
Your automatic retrieval of past experience in interpreting a new one.
Providing enough time for forgetting between retrieval practice sessions.
Short-term impediments that make for stronger learning.
The process of converting sensory perceptions into meaningful perceptions in the brain.
The process of strengthening mental representations for long-term memory.
New mental representations of perceptions.
The act of trying to answer a question or attempting to solve a problem rather than being presented with the information or the solution. Another name for old-fashioned trial and error.
Two Systems of Knowing (Kahneman)
System 1: Automatic- unconscious, intuitive, and immediate
System 2: Controlled-conscious analysis and reasoning
Motivated Reasoning (Dunning)
The ability to convince oneself of congenial conclusions while denying the truth of inconvenient ones
Hunger for Narrative
Our understanding of the world is shaped by this, which rises out of our discomfort with ambiguity and arbitrary events.
The tendency of people who, when asked to imagine an event vividly, will sometimes begin to believe, when asked about it later, that the event actually occurred.
Incompetent individuals lack the metacognition or self-monitoring skills necessary to determine how well they are performing, how accurate their judgment is, and when they are likely to be wrong. As a result, they overestimate their own competence.
practice needs to be... (3 qualities)
- Spaced—spaced out in time
- Interleaved—cycling through learned and new skills
- Varied—not massed (to improve transfer)
process of learning (3 stages)
1. Encoding—converting sensory perceptions into meaningful representations in the brain
2. Consolidation—strengthening mental representations for long-term memory
converting sensory perceptions into meaningful representations in the brain
strengthening mental representations for long-term memory
something that learners can overcome through increased effort
trying to answer a question or solve a problem rather than being shown the information or the solution
trial and error
reflection involves (3 processes)
- retrieval: recall
- elaboration: connecting old and new knowledge
- generation: rephrasing, visualizing what to do next time
monitoring your own thinking
memory distortions (3 kinds)
- imagination inflation
tendency of people who, when asked to imagine an event vividly, will sometimes begin to believe, when asked about it later, that the event actually occurred
specific words (and their connotations) used to ask a question
other events that distort memory
ability to reason, see relationships, think abstractly and hold information in mind while working on a problem
The ability to think, reason, and solve a problem
one's accumulated knowledge of the world and the procedures or mental models
Robert Sternberg's theory of intelligence (3 kinds)
- Analytical intelligence: ability to complete problem-solving tasks
- Creative intelligence: ability to synthesize and apply existing knowledge and skills to deal with new and unusual situations
- Practical intelligence: ability to adapt to everyday life
ability to complete problem-solving tasks
ability to synthesize and apply existing knowledge and skills to deal with new and unusual situations
ability to adapt to everyday life
dynamic testing (3 purposes)
- Determine the state of one's expertise (What are they good at)
- Refocus learning on areas of low performance
(What areas of learning do they struggle)
- Follow-up testing to measure improvement.
(Have they improved?)
For calibrating your judgment (5 tools & habits )
- frequent low-stakes quizzes
- cumulative quizzing
- explaining in your own words
- peer instruction
Tips for lifelong learners (6 things to practice)
Tips for teachers (4)
• Explain how learning works
• Teach students how to study
• Create desirable difficulties in the classroom
• Be transparent
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