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Terms in this set (18)
The limbic system
primitive area of the brain that processes emotions -includes: Thalamus (channel for sensory info connecting the hippocampus and hypothalamus
The amygdala assesses and responds to potential threats
Over activiy in the amygdala
linked to reactive aggression
COLLARD - found greater activity in individuals with intermittent explosive disorder than controls when looking at angry faces. (fMRI)
Under ctivity in the amygdala
linked to psychopathy
GLENN - fMRI on 17 psychopaths when they though about an emotional dillema - found reduced activity (no remorse)
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.
linked to the MAOA-L gene and HTT5 gene(they cause higher levels of serotonin
Low levels of serotonin in habitual violent offenders (discovered this by finding they suffer from sleep irregularities)
Male sex hormone linked to dominance and aggression - levels typically 5 times higher than in females
positive correlation between testosterone levels in 60 male offenders -most suffererd from personality disorders.
Dual hormone hypothesis?
testosterone alone cannot explain aggression - aggessive behaviour likely to occur when testosterone is high and cortisol is low.
Evaluation for neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression
Strength-support from Coccaro, Glenn and Virkunnen
-gender imbalance in T levels explain an imbalance in aggression.
-the research studies only show correlation not causation
-isolating and identifying a specific influence of the limbic system is difficult
- reductionist - doesnt take into account other environmental factors
social psychological explanation -SLT
BANDURA- aggression learned thru operant conditioning(pos+neg) and vicarious reinforcement(observational learning)-seeing reward of role model
Vicarious punishment - model role of agrression is punished
Bobo doll-children observed model abusing doll toy, then provoked by not being allowed to play with desirable toys, then taken to rrom with doll- children imitated behaviour of model physically and verbally.
Group that had seen model being nice showed no aggressive behaviour
Follow up study to BANDURA
adults shown being given sweet after aggression -resulted in more imitated behaviour.
Poulin and Boivin
applied slt to aggressive behaviour in boys (9-11) aggressive boys became friends with other aggressive boys naturally reinforcing behaviour and exposed frequently to models and rewarded thru group approval
Supported by James Bulgar - railway murder - blue paint used - dad had been watching childsplay 3 which also used paint
W- children deliberately frustrated - not simple due to observational learning
- studies into children(poulin +boivin) my not be generalisable to adults -easily influened
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. - increases every timw aggression is successful and achived what they want
DOLLARD -the extent to which people feel frustrated predicts the likelihood that they will act aggressively-
aggression satisfys frustraction making more A less likely
isnt always expressed direcly:
- frustration is abstract
- may be available to act on it
- may be arisk of punishment
therefore displaces on weaker/less abstract things.
GREEN - Frustration aggression hypothesis
male uni students completeing jigsaw task
conditions: ran out of time, being insulted, impossible task.
Ps then gave shocks to confederates when they made a mistake on another task
Insulted Ps gave the strongest shocks
- all gave higher shocks than control group
F-A hypothesis - environmental cues
frustraction only creates readiness
cues in enviro make A more likely
Study- Ps given electrics shocks to create frustration then gave shocks back with either 2 guns or the table or without.
Ps with 2 guns on the table on average gave higher shocks
- the weapons effect stimulates aggression
Evaluation of F-A hypotheis
S- meta analysis(49) on displaced aggression where it had to be targetted at something thatbdidnt cause the frustraction -had exact outcomes that were predicted
w- found that aggression doesnt satisfy aggression - hitting a punch bag made ppl more aggressive -doubs validity
BERKOWITZ - said not only frustration caused aggression (other neg feelings)
-also frustration may lead to despair/anxiety - F-A cant explain all situs