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Paper 1 - Coastal Landscapes in the UK (Y9)
Terms in this set (40)
When a wave breaks onto a beach and carries material up the beach.
When a wave rushes back down a beach at 90° to the coastline.
A wave which causes deposition because it has a strong swash, but a weak backwash. They are low in height, less frequent and in calm seas.
A wave which causes erosion because it has a strong backwash, but a weak swash. They are tall, more frequent and happen in storms.
The direction that the wind usually blows from. It causes longshore drift to happen in the same direction.
The breakdown of rock without movement. It can be chemical (e.g. due to acid rain) or biological (e.g. due to plant roots)
The distance a wave has travelled across the sea.
The hurling of rocks against the cliffs by the waves (a type of erosion).
The sheer force of the water as it hits the cliffs traps air in cracks and compresses it, causing the rock to crack further (a type of erosion).
The stones in the water collide and become smaller, smoother and more rounded (a type of erosion).
The acidic seawater dissolves rock which contains Calcium Carbonate, such as Limestone and Chalk (a type of erosion and transportation too).
An area of hard resistant rock (e.g. granite) which juts out to sea.
An area of soft less resistant rock (e.g. boulder clay) which has been eroded more quickly by destructive waves.
An area of deposited sand or shingle which is built up by constructive waves, especially in sheltered locations like in a bay. The heaviest material is at the back of this, and the lightest near where the waves break.
Wave cut platform
A flat area of rock left behind at the base of cliffs which have retreated due to cliff collapse.
Wave cut notch
Formed because the base of the cliff is eroded between the high and low tide marks. It causes an overhang above.
A weakness such as a joint in a headland which can be attacked by hydraulic action to form a cave.
A hollow in a headland which is caused by erosion.
Formed when the backwall of a cave collapses due to abrasion and hydraulic action. You can see through the headland.
Formed when the top of an arch collapses (due to weathering), leaving a pillar of rock separate from the headland.
Formed when a stack topples due to abrasion, leaving a small area of rock only visible at low tide.
The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity. It can slide (e.g. landslide), or slump (e.g. rotational).
The movement of material by the seawater.
The largest rocks are rolled along the sea bed (a type of transportation).
Pebbles are bounced along the sea bed (a type of transportation).
The lighter material like sand floats in the water (a type of transportation).
When material is dropped and beaches are created.
A beach which extends out to sea from a bend in the coastline e.g. Spurn Point on the Humber Estuary.
The transportation of material along a coast in a zig-zag
This aims to prevent erosion, but is expensive and short term. It involves building or adding structures. It is used in areas of high value.
This aims to reduce erosion by working with nature, using natural more sustainable methods.
This is when we allow the coastline to change as it would do naturally either by allowing flooding or coastal erosion to occur.
This a concrete structure built at the back of the beach which absorbs wave energy (and can reflect some back to sea if it has a curved lip).
Cages filled with hard resistant rocks which are stacked at the back of the beach to absorb wave energy.
Large resistant rocks are placed at the back of the beach to absorb wave energy.
Wooden or rock structures which are placed at 90° to the coastline in order to trap sediment moved by longshore drift, widening beaches
When sand is dumped or pumped onto the beach.
The village protected by £2m rock groyne/rock armour.
Your example of a coastline with erosion and deposition.
Your example of a coastline which is managed (y10 fieldwork is done there) with a new sea wall (Spanish steps), groynes and beach nourishment. It is located in NW England.
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