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Civil Rights USA 1954-1975
Terms in this set (54)
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Treating people differently/unfairly because of their race or religion
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Central government in the USA, controls major aspects of politics which affect the whole country. Led by a President.
Government within a state, usually led by a state governor. Controls things such as local education and transport.
The highest federal court in the United States
Part of the United States government which passes laws
The ending of racial segregation
Georgia, North and South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Florida and Texas
Civil Rights Act 1964
Law passed by President Johnson that made segregation illegal in all public facilities, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission set up
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
White Citizens Council
Ku Klux Klan, white supremacist group
Women's Political Council - helped to arrange civil rights activities
Plessey v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court decision that permitted segregation under the "separate but equal" concept.
Browder v. Gayle
(1956) Ended segregation in the public transportation system after the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Congress of Racial Equality
A fourteen year old black boy who was lynched by a Mississippi mob. His mother allowed photos of his body to be published by the media.
Conservative southern Democrats who objected to civil rights
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954
Supreme court ruled that education must be available to all children on equal terms. Separate is not Equal.
50's movement where middle-class white Americans moved away from cities, partly as a response to the civil rights movement giving black people more rights
Little Rock High School (1957)
Was the site of forced desegregation in 1957 when the governor of Alabama wouldn't allow the 9 black students to access to the school. President Eisenhower sent troops to force the school to admit the students.
Arkansas governor who called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under federal court order.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955 protest action to end segregation on buses in Montgomery, Alabama
Refused to give up her seat to a white person on a bus, 1955
Montgomery Improvement Association - a group started during the Montgomery bus boycott.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Leader of the civil rights movement
Jo Ann Robinson
Civil Rights activist and educator in Montgomery; head of Women's Political Council
Assistant to Martin Luther King; tried to keep MLK's plans going after his death with his ambitious "Poor People's Campaign" but it didn't achieve any of the goals they had hoped it would
Civil Rights Act 1957
Allowed federal courts to prosecute states that did not follow rules on voting rights for black people. The law was ineffective.
Southern Christian Leadership Council
Members of the SNCC organized "sit - in" of all-white lunch counters at the Woolworths
SNCC - (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
A group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
Bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961. Organised by CORE and SNCC.
Anniston Bus Bomb
Members of the KKK attacked and bombed a bus of Freedom Riders travelling through Alabama, May 1961
James Meredith Case 1961
Black student challenged the University of Mississippi to allow him to study; he was regularly abused .
Governor of Mississippi who tried to prevent James Meredith from entering Ole Miss, was extremely racist
'Confrontation' - civil rights protests in Birmingham, Alabama 1963, organised by SNCC to provoke white violence against the peaceful protesters
He was the chief of police of Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement. His use of excessive force against the peaceful marchers on television brought attention to the issue, and helped gain support for civil right legislation.
Washington March 1963
Huge civil rights march to Washington, ended with MLK 'I have a dream' speech
Freedom Summer 1964
Effort by civil rights groups SNCC and CORE in Mississippi to register black voters during the summer of 1964
1 black & 2 white civil rights workers disappeared in Mississippi during the Freedom Summer campaign
Selma March 1965
Civil Rights groups arranged a march from Selma to Alabama's capital (Montgomery). This action brought attention to the problem of voting discrimination.
Bloody Sunday 1965
Demonstration March from Selma to Montgomery Alabama. Protest against voting rights. Peaceful March is turned violent by police violence
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end the attacks and measure which stopped black people registering to vote
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
The belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. It urged blacks to achieve economic independence from white people.
Coined the phrase "black power" and led SNCC away from a nonviolent approach.
March Against Fear 1966
March started by James Meredith, brought together MLK and Stokely Carmichael. King wanted a peaceful march.
Mexico Olympics 1968
Black Power salute performed by John Carlos and Tommie Smith brought worldwide attention to civil rights inequality
Black Panther Party
A group formed in 1966, inspired by the idea of Black Power, that provided aid to black neighbourhoods; often thought of as radical or violent.
Kerner Report (1968)
Blamed violence on segregation, poverty, white racism
Coordinating Council of Community Organisations of Chicago, asked SCLC to join a non-violent campaign in the North for fairer housing for black people
Riots in the North 1966
Civil Rights marches arranged in the north (Chicago) ended in violence on both sides. MLK could not stop it.
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