GCSE Geography Lagos Case Study
Terms in this set (23)
Where is Lagos?
The largest city in Nigeria, located in the SW, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea
What is the population of Lagos?
How has Lagos' population changed since 1960?
1) The population was less than 1 million in 1960
2) Over 250,000 migrants arrive annually causing an outward urban sprawl - since 1960, Lagos has expanded 15km North and 10km West
How is Lagos important to Nigeria and Africa?
1) Main financial centre for the whole of West Africa
2) 80% of Nigeria's industry is based in and around Lagos
3) Largest airport and seaport in Nigeria
Give 4 push factors from rural Nigeria
1) Subsistence farming pays very low wages
2) Very few opportunities (mainly agriculture)
3) Northern Nigeria experiences heavy drought leading to malnutrition
4) NE Nigeria is home to terrorist group 'Boko Haram', which generates political unrest and insecurity in the area
GIve 4 pull factors to Lagos
1) Jobs in manufacturing pay better than farming
2) More job opportunities
3) Better sanitation and medical facilities
4) Established schools and colleges i.e. better education
Give 4 social opportunities in Lagos
How does Lagos' healthcare compare to the rest of Nigeria?
1) More clinics and hospitals in Lagos
2) Basic healthcare is free
3) Life expectancy in Lagos is 70, compared to 53 in the rest of Nigeria
How does Lagos' education compare to the rest of Nigeria?
1) More schools and universities in Lagos
2) In Lagos 68% of the population have secondary education, but in rural Nigeria 40% do not even attend primary school
How does Lagos' sanitation compare to the rest of Nigeria?
Water treatment plants provide safe water piped directly to parts of the city
How does Lagos' electricity provide opportunities?
People have access to electricity for cooking and lighting, which can also help to develop businesses
Give 3 economic opportunities in Lagos
1) Offers the most jobs in Nigeria - informal and formal economy
2) Rapid growth of city means that there are an increasing number of jobs available in construction - e.g. Eko Atlantic will employ 150,000 people
3) Jobs are better paid that in rural Nigeria, with an average salary of $5500
Give 2 social challenges in Lagos
1) 60% of Lagos' population lives in slums, such as Makoko
2) Average population density of 20,000 people per km² puts pressure on the city infrastructure
Give 3 environmental challenges in Lagos
1) Only 40% of rubbish is officially collected, leading to large rubbish dumps containing toxic waste, such as Olusoson rubbish dump
2) Waste disposal and emissions from factories are not controlled leading to air and water pollution
3) Traffic congestion causes more carbon dioxide to be released
Detail the challenges of water supply and pollution
1) Only 10% of people in Lagos have a piped water supply that has been treated and purified
2) Drinking water often contains bacterial or chemical pollution that can cause disease, due to sewage leaks and poor drainage
3) Rising sea levels could cause increased flooding which would lead to groundwater contamination
Detail the solutions to management of water supply and pollution
1) In 2012, the Lagos State Water Regulatory Commission (LSWRC) began: regulating water supply and vendors; issuing licences for boreholes; ensuring a safe and reasonably priced water supply
2) Floating communities such as Makoko floating school have been built (2014)
Detail the challenges of traffic congestion
1) High congestion
- average commuter spends over 3 hours in traffic every day
2) High air pollution, with rates 5x higher than the internationally recommended limit
3) High fatal accident rate of 28 per 10,000, which is 3x higher than in Europe
Detail the solutions to management of traffic congestion
1) In 2003, LAMATA was set up to improve transport
- Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system provided a separate line for buses to reduce travel times; it is used by 200,000 people daily
- large fleet of minibus taxis known as 'dantos' were introduced, of which each one can carry 10-15 passengers
2) Planning is underway a new railway line into the CBD, designed to carry 7x as many passengers as the BRT
3) Planning is also underway for the Lagos Rail Mass Transit (LRMT), which is a network of 7 new integrated rail lines
How does the informal economy provide opportunities in Lagos?
1) 90% of new jobs in Lagos are in the informal economy
2) The informal economy accounts for 40% of the total workforce
3) The unemployment rate is only 9.9% in Lagos (very low for Africa), due to the multitude of jobs in the informal economy
How does Olusoson rubbish dump provide opportunities in the informal economy?
1) 500 people work there daily
2) 3000 tonnes of rubbish are sorted per day, which are then sold to be recycled
3) This has formed a community and has helped to cope with Lagos' huge rubbish
What is a squatter settlement?
A small community that tends to be found on unwanted land
Give 5 problems with sanitation in Makoko
1) 75% of people live in one room
2) 33% of waste sewage is poured directly into a drain or river
3) Only 10% of people have adequate sanitation
4) Communal toilets are shared by 15 households
5) Buildings are prone to flooding
Why are there high levels of crime in Makoko?
The area is self-policed by a gang called "The Area Boys"
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