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What does the 5th percentile mean95% are bigger 5% are smallerWhat does the 50 percentile show50% are bigger than them and 50% are smallerWhat does the 95 percentile show95% of the children are shorter than your child 5% of the children are the same or taller than your childwhat does growth spurt meanDuring our life when they are rapid periods of growth during infancy and puberty.What does Holistic meanThis means that areas of development are dependent on and influence each otherWhat is physical developmentThis is the way in which the body increases in skills and complexity of performance.The physical skills that develop throughout life can be divided into two main areasgross motor skills and fine motor skillsWhat are gross motor skillslarge movements that involve using the large muscles of the body which are required for mobility involves using the arms , legs and head e.g walking , running , jumping , throwing a ballWhat are fine motor skillsThis involves smaller movements that requires more precise direction and use smaller muscles e.g picking up a pencil requires the use of smaller muscles in the hands , fingers and toes e.g scribbling and unscribbling dressing and undressing holding a crayonWhat are primitive reflexesThis set of reflexes indicates that the new borns central nervous system is in good working order. Some of these responses stay with us for life and some disappear as the natural bodily responses take overWhat is the sucking reflexThis cuses babies to suck only object that touches their lips or enters their mouth and enables them to feed from birth.What is the grasping reflexThis causes babies to curl their fingers tightly around any object placed in their palmWhat is the rooting reflexThis causes babies to turn their cheeks in the direction of touch and helps them to direct to their mothers breastpregnancy is usually around40 to 42 weeksDevelopment can very much defend oninternal and external factorswhat are internal factorsBlood pressure , diet , stress levelsWhat are external factorsDrinking , smoking , drugsWhen is growth and development most rapidin infancyWhen do babies reach their half adult sizeinfancyWhat should have happened after 6 monthsThey should have doubled they weightHow does primitive reflexes hep protect the babyThey help protect the baby in the first few months of lifeWhat is a milestonean ability achieved by most children at a certain age. It can involve physical , social , emotional , cognitive and communication skills e.g walking , sharing with others , expressing emotionsWhat are primary sexual characteristicsThis relates to the changes and the development of reproductive organsWhat are secondary sexual characteristicsThese are outward signs of development from a child into a man or womenWhat are the age boundaries for adolescence9-18 yearsWhat are hormonesHormones are chemical substances produced in the body and transported in the blood stream that control or regulate body cells or body organsWhen are young adults usually at the peak of their physical performance19 and 28What is perimenopauseThis is when a women is in her forties and her ovaries gradually begin to make less oestrogen. This means that the ovaries slowly stop producing an egg each month.What are the two features of the menopauseGradual ending of menstruation and a large reduction of fertile eggs in the ovaries an increase in the production of hormones called gonadotropins that try to stimulate egg production which can cause irritability , hot flushes and night sweatsWhat are the 4 features of later adulthoodincreased weight and waistline loss of skin elasticity loss of muscle tone and strength greying and thinning of hair lossWhat is adolescenceThis is an important status change following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child into an adultWhen do primary sexual characteristics developThey present at birth and develop during pubertyWhen do secondary sexual characteristics developduring pubertyWhat are the changes in males and females following the primary sexual characteristicschanges in males - penis enlarges , testicles grow , sperm is produced changes in females - sexual organs grow ,ovulation and mensruation commenceWhat are the changes in males and females following the secondary sexual characteristicschanges in males - pubic hair grows in armpits and pubic area , facial hair , voice deepens changes in females - pubic hair grows in armpits and pubic area , breasts develop , hips widenWhat is pubertyThis is a period of rapid growth during which young people reach sexual maturity and become biologically able to reproduce and secondary sexual characteristics developWhats the difference between puberty in girls and boyspuberty in girls often starts between the ages of 11 and 13 although it may begin earlier. boys start puberty later , often between 13 and 15 years of ageWhat are the hormone roles in the bodysex hormones ,female hormones and male hormonesWhat are the sex hormones responsible forThe changes that occur in pubertyWhat are the female and male sex hormonespituitary gland - controls the release of sex hormones in both females and males oestrogen and progesterone - The ovaries start to produce oestrogen and progesterone which are responsible for changes including ovulation and menstruation Testosterone - The testes start to produce testosterone which stimulates sperm production , indicating the onset of fertility . Testosterone is also responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as deeper pitch and tone of the voiceWhat happens during the menopausereduction in oestrogen levels experienced during the menopause can lead to mood changes , depression and anxietyWhat is HRTA Hormone replacement therapy It is a treatment to relieve the symptoms of the menopause.It can help most of the menopausal symptoms like hot sweats , night flushes , mood swingsWhat are the different ways to take HRTtablets , skin patches , gelsWhat are the HRT hormonesmost women take a combination of the hormones oestrogen and progesteroneHow are intellectual abilities affected by ageing- major depressive disorders tend to be undiagnosed - diseases and conditions that can affect health and well-being - As people are now living more longer , Alzheimer 's disease has become more prevalentWhat is intellectual developmentAlso known as cognitive development is about the development of the mind and includes the development of language. children learn to reason , think , understand and explain thingsFor most children the pattern of intellectual developmentusually follows the same sequence and children usually meet milestones sat roughly the same timeWhat are the types of intellectual developmentlanguage development - essential for organising thoughts and to share and express ideas. It is also important for clarification problem solving - required to both work things out and to make predictions about what might happen Memory - required for storing , recalling , and retrieving information Moral development - allows for reasoning and making choices , and informs the individual how to act in particular situations and how to act towards self and others . values that that individuals develop Abstract thoughts and creative thinkingWhat does egocentric meanwhen young children only see from their own point of viewWhat happens between 12 months/ 3 yearschild becomes aware of their own worldonce a child is able to move aroundthey become more mobile they intellectual development will speed up as they have more new experiences to learn fromWhat does language help us to doexpress our feelings , develop relationships , to communicate , develop our imagination , use language to investigate the world more , control our behaviourWho was piaget (1895-1980)swiss psychologistWhat did he developA cognitive theory of intellectual development that has been used in areas such of work such as early years care , special needs support and primary educationWhat was his theory based onwhat he found out from his own children and othersWhat did he believe inThe development of a child's intelligence happens in four different stagesdifferent stagessensorimotor stage (0-2 yrs ) pre operational stage (2-7 yrs) concrete operational stage (7-11 yrs) formal operational stage(11-18yrs)What is the sensorimotor stageInfants think by interacting with the world using their eyes , ears , hands and mouth. sensory comes from the senses . children learn through their senses touch , sight , hear , smell , taste motor means active when children discover how to move object permanence - when an object is moved then its goneWhat is the preoperational stagechildren start to use symbols , engage in play , development of language takes place children are very egocentric which means they only see things from their own point of view though others may be mature for their age and be younger than 7what is the concrete operational stageChildren may be able to understand simple logical principles and learn the idea of conservation . If their are two identical glasses and have the same water the child will know that there is same water . However if there is a fat glass and a tall skinny glass then the child will say that the tall glass will have more waterwhat is the formal operational stageWhen the capacity for abstract thinking allows adolescents to reason through symbols. young people can also think of possible outcomes of a scientific problem , not just the obvious ones. Abstract thinking allows individuals to see complicated ideas in their heads.What is cognitive developmentis a childs ability to learn and solve problemsschemapiagets schematic development theory how a child develops ideasAccommodationModifying schemas in relation to new information and experiencesAbstract logical thinkingthe ability to solve problemsAssimilationThe process of taking in and fully understanding information or ideas Taking in information or experiences and incorporate them into our existing ideasconcrete logical thinkingthe ability to solve problems providing an individual can see or physically handle the issues involvedWhat does piagets theory explaincognitive developmental stages up to adolescenceWhat does his research focus onhow children acquire the ability to thinkWhat conclusion did he come tothat children think differently to adultsWhat do some psychologist suggestThere is a post formal operational stage of thinking in which the adults become more skilled in their ability to make flexible judgements It may be that many adults become skilled in their ability that could be called wisdom as they grow oldercriticsms of piagets theory- based theory on small number of children - children at the age of 5 are less egocentric than piaget suggested - research shows that children take longer than 11 years to become skilled at abstract logical thinking - Bruner beleved that with adult support children can progress to higher level thinking skills - critics of piaget suggest that he underestimated or overestimated childrens cognitive abilities cognitive development could depend on a childs environment and the quality of their formal and informal educationGross motor skills during infancy between 0-5- By 3 months a new born will be able to grasp an adults finger and hold a rattle for a short time -By 6 moths they will be able to grasp a toy and pass it to the other hand -By 12 months they will be able to pick up small objects using a pincer grasp -An 18 month old can build with small blocks , use a spoon and make marks with crayons using a palmer grasp -At 2 years old they can pull on their shoes and control their crayon to draw circle and dots -At years old a child will develop a tripod grasp. They can use a fork and a spoon. -At 4 years old they can thread small beads and colour in pictures -At 5 years old they can control the muscles in their fingers . They can control a pen to write their own name.Fine motor skills for children between the age 0-2-New born babies keep their hands closed most of the time . They have an automatic grasp reflex which usually disappears by 3 months -By 6 months a child will grasp a toy and hold it -By 9 months most children can use finger and thumb to hold objects pincer grasp -At 12 months they can hold a crayon using the palmer grasp -At 15 months they can usually take a spoon up to their mouth -At 2 years they may begin to dress themselves