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What are the stages of language development
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3 months - Infant begin to make babbling noises as they learn to control muscles associated with speech
12 months -infants begin to imitate sounds made by carers e.g dad dad which develops into using single words
2 years -Infants begin to make two-words sentences e.g cat-goed which means the cat has gone away
infants begin to build their vocabulary
3 years- children begin to make simple sentence e.g i want drink which develops into the ability to ask questions e.g when we go?
vocabulary grows very rapidly
4 years- children begin to use clear sentences that could be understood by stranger and begin to make mistakes in their grammar e.g we mets lots of people at the shops today
5 years- can speak using full adult grammar
vocabulary will grow
formal grammar will improve
most children can use language effectively by the age of 5
children will learn new words from their environment
chomsky's theory does not take into account when children grow up with two different languages
Bruner would argue that social interaction mainly in the early stages of language development is critical and has more influence on children than chomsky suggested
Others argue that chomsky put too much emphasis on the grammar in sentence structure rather than how children construct meaning from their sentences
chomsky did not take into consideration of people who have learning disability ,hearing or speech impairments
Infancy and early childhood -stages of rapid intellectual development
Adolescence to early adulthood -Development of logical thought, problem solving and memory recall skills
Middle Adulthood - can think through problems and make sound judgments using the experiences
Later adulthood - changes in the brain can cause short-term memory decline and slower thought process and reaction times
What is a child's emotional development between the age 0-2 years3 months- most babies respond indiscriminately to any caregiver 3 months up to 7 months -Infants can distinguish between the main caregiver and other people 7-9 months - When infants look to particular people for security , comfort and protection. The baby shows fear of strangers and unhappiness when separated from their main caregiver. 9 months + - Baby starts to become more independent and forms several attachments 2 years - infants appear to have an in - built tendency to interact with carers. They will start to play alongside other children.What is the emotional development between 3-65 +0-2 years - By 2 months they may start to smile at human faces 5 months infants can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people 3-8 years - young children are emotionally attached and dependent on the adults that care for them 9-18 During adolescence a persons sense of self worth may be more influenced to their peers than by their family 19-65 - Friendship networks continue to be very important. Individuals may experience time pressures that may limit their social activity 65+- Older adults have more free time to develop friendship through taking up new hobbies, pastimes and travel.What are key terms for emotional developmentself image , self respect , contentment , security , bonding and attachmentEmotional literacywhen you can read your own feelings and emotions and other peoples feelings and emotionsEmpathythe ability to identify with or understand another's situation or feelingsAttachmenta strong emotional connection between a child and a caregiverself imagethe way an individual sees themselves , their mental image of themselvesself esteemhow a person feels about themselves , self-worth or prideself conceptan awareness formed in early childhood of being an individual , a unique person and different from everyone elseKey features of emotional development betweeninfancy 0-2 years - ATTACHMENT Bowlby argues that infants have an inbuilt need to form an attachment with a career. Infants who are securely attached will grow up with the emotional resources needed to cope with the uncertainty of life. Infants who are insecurely attached may have a reduced ability to cope with stress and major life events Early childhood 3-8 years UNDERSTANDING SELF AND OTHERS Children begin to imagine an idea of self or self - concept Relationships with other people may influence whether a child feels valued or has a sense of self - worth Adolescence 9-18 years IDENTITY self - concept continues to develop An person needs a clear sens of identity in order to feel secure when working with other people or making a sexual attachment. Early and middle adulthood 19-65 INTIMACY Self image is influenced by lifestyles such as their job and marital status. self image is affected by personal appearance and how others see you Later adulthood 65+- MAKING SENSE OF YOUR LIFE old people need a secure sense of self to cope with the changes associated with ageing and death. People who fail to make a sense of their lives might experience despairWhat happens if you have a secure attachment with a caregiverA child will feel secure , loved and has a sense of belonging caregivers are protectors and help the child feel happy , secure and confident. This leads to happier and healthier attachments with others in the future .What happens if you have an insecure attachment with a caregiverA mistrust of caregivers or adult in authority could develop Insecure attachment can lead to behavioural issues , a lack of ability to receive affection and manipulative behaviour . Children may not be able to develop a secure base to cope with life events.What does John bowlby refer to attachment asA deep and enduring emotional bond that connects a child to their primary caregiverWhen did his attachment theory originateduring the 1930s while working as a child psychiatrist treating many emotionally disturbed children , Bowlby began to consider a childs relationship with their motherWhat did Bowlby link the importance ofHe linked the importance of social , emotional and cognitive development to the relationship to the child had with his mother He believed that children were biologically preprogrammed to form attachments and that infancy was a critical period for forming positive attachmentsWhat did bowlby observe observe when working with James robertsonThat children experienced separation anxiety an intense distress when separated by their mothers. The childs disstress and anxiety did not disappear even when they were being fed by another carerCriticsms of Bowlby- oversimplified his theory Research by schaffer and emerson suggest that babies are most likely to form attachments to caregivers who respond effectively to their signals not the person who spends the most with them - others believe that attachment is a learned behaviour influenced by factors such as the environment , culture or baby's temperamentDeprivationbeing deprived of a caregiver to whom an attachment already existsprivationbeing deprived of the opportunity to form an attachmentstranger anxietythe fear and apprehension that infants experience when separated from their main caregiverschaffer and emerson's sequence of attachment3 months - most babies will respond indiscriminately to any caregiver 3 months - 7 months Infants can distinguish the difference between their main caregiver and people 7 - 9 months - This is when infants look to particular people for security , comfort and protection some infants are most likely to display fear of strangers and stranger anxiety than others 9 months +- The baby starts to become more independent and forms several attachmentsAttachment may not go smoothly because ofprematurity - if a premature baby is an incubator then it cannot be held which can effect the attachment process post natal depression - some mothers are depressed after birth but PND lasts longer and effect the mothers bond with the baby Separation - separation of parents from their baby e.g due to illness , bereavement or the parents divorcing can effect attachment Foster care / adoption - children within the care system may experience inconsistency of care givers which can effect attachment Emotional unavailability - may be due to parent having problems due to alcohol or drugs Disability- some parents find it hard to attach to a bay with a disability and may struggle with their feeling and some babies with disability have difficulty forming strong attachmentsChildren with a high self - esteemhave an easier time in relationships , resisting peer pressure , making friends and handling conflictsChildren with a positive self esteemhave generally optimistic view of the world and their lifeDevelopment of self esteem0-18 months - During infancy babies start to build self esteem by having their basic needs being met for e.g closeness love and comfort Babies know they are loved as they are provided with comfort which makes them feel important as well as safe and secure 18 months - 2 years - when they learn a new skill they begin to realise what they can achieve and begin to learn about themselves , what they can do , what they look like , and where they belongWhat happens when a child reaches the age of 4positive self esteem is reinforced by what the child can do successfully and independently and by the feedback they receive by carersHow can a parent or a carer help to foster a childs positve a self esteem- Teaching problem solving skills - include children in tasks that include a sense of acompolFactors that effect positive self esteemEffective communication skills Building positive realtionships resisting peer pressure enjoy different activities Babies develop positive realtionships high confidence good acheivements motivation successful with life goal orientated career developmementFactors that effect negative self esteemchildren can become passive withdrawn and depressed may experience difficulties at school negative childhood , society , media stressful life event negative mindset being bullied not having friends depression problems in business traumasolo play 0-1 yearslooks at adults closely, puts things in mouth and touches things with hands play alone with toys gradually begins to play simple games e.g peekaboo and explores toys alonesolo play 12-18 monthsbegins to play and talk alone repeats action and starts to play with adults notices other childrenparallel play 18 months - 2 yearsenjoy repetitive actions such as putting object in and out of boxes copy other children and adultsAssociative play 3-4 yearsplaying co-operatively with other children start to show reasoning skills by asking questions joining in in fantasy and pretend gamesco - operative play 4-6 yearsuse simple rules in games take turns when playing table top games with other childrenco - operative play 6-8 yearsenjoy playing in small groups making up own games and rules enjoys and understanding rules does not cope well with losingWhat is solo playwhen infants play independently it is common at this life stage This provides infants to explore the environment , help to focus their attention , become self - reliant , learn by making mistakes and increase their self esteemWhat is parallel playbetween the ages of two or three infants move to playing alongside other children each infant will be engrossed in their own independent activity however they do show interest in what other children are doingWhat is co -operative playsocial benefits of friendshipscope with a traumatic life event support to maintain a healthy lifestyle avoid loneliness provide a sense of belonging reduction of stress and depressioneffects of peer pressuredrinking alcohol taking drugs engaging in unprotected sexual activitiesDeveloping relationships with othersinformal relationships develop within families and significant people it promotes positive self concept which allows developing of intimate relationships that show mutual respect Formal relationships do not involve emotional attachment but are important to social development children who have positive relationships are likely to develop effective formal relationshipslook at self image notes