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Sociology of Religion
Beliefs In Society Sociologists
Terms in this set (115)
Who talks about the sacred and the profane, totemism, and collective conscience?
Which tribe were studied for totemism?
Arunta, Australian Aboriginal
Who looked at cognitive functions of religion?
Durkheim and Mauss
Who argued there is no clear division between the sacred and the profane?
Which postmodernist argues that functionalist concepts can't apply to our contemporary, fragmented society?
Who spoke about the psychological functions of religion?
Which tribe were studied for using 'canoe magic'?
Who talks about religion helping people cope with unforeseen events and outcomes?
Who spoke about civil religion?
Who describes religion as a ideological weapon used to legitimate the suffering of the poor and is a product of alienation?
Who describes religion as a spiritual gin?
Who argues that pre-capitalism religion only affected peasants so it isn't always effective at controlling the population?
Abercrombie, Hill, and Turner
Who sees Catholicism's exclusion of women from priesthood as evidence of women's marginalisation?
Who says that segregating the sexes and placing taboos on menstruation devalue women?
Who argues that the exclusion of women from priesthood represents the church's unease about the emancipation of women?
Who talks about fertility cults and earth mother goddesses?
Who argues that religion's oppression of women is due to patriarchy reshaping religion?
Who argues there are ways that women can use religion to gain greater freedom?
Who says that British-Muslim women wear the hijab in order to gain parental approval to enter higher education?
Who found that belonging to a pentecostal group can empower some women?
Who argues that women can further their own interests in piety movements?
Who argues that religion is a force for change?
Which group brought about capitalism in 16/17th century Northern Europe?
Which is an ascetic religion in India that lacked the drive to accumulate wealth that is required to bring about modern capitalism?
Which is an non-ascetic religion that lacked the drive to accumulate wealth that is required to bring about modern capitalism?
Who is the individual that Weber's work is described as arguing against?
Marx (his ghost)
Who argues that ideas are overestimated and economic factors are underestimated in the role of religion and social change (Weber)?
Who argues that technological change birthed capitalism?
Who described religion as an ideological resource in bringing about social change?
Which group was successful in bringing about social change from Bruce's studies?
The American Civil Rights Movement (1955)
Which group was unsuccessful in bringing about social change from Bruce's studies?
The New Christian Right
Who says that religion has a dual character and can encourage social change?
Who says that religion sometimes inhibits change but can also inspire protest?
What movement does liberation theology refer to?
Catholic Church helping the poor in Latin America
Who says that the liberation theology played an important role in resisting state terror and bringing about democracy?
Who believes that religion can be a revolutionary force?
Who contracted liberation theology and pentecostalism?
Who says that millernarian movements expect the imminent transformation of this world by supernatural means?
Who spoke about cargo cults in Melanesia?
Who talks about religion and hegemony?
Who applied the Gramsci's ideas to a case study of coalminers and textile workers in Kentucky 1920/30?
Who estimated that in 1851 40% of the adult population attended church on Sundays?
Who argues that Western societies have been undergoing a long-term process of secularisation?
What has the percentage dropped to from 40% of population attending church in the 19th century?
10% in the 1960s
What percentage of the adult population attended church on Sunday in 2015?
What has Sunday school attendance dropped to from 1.6 million in 1960?
0.8 million in 2013
What percentage of weddings were in churches in 2012?
People with no religion went from 1/3 in 1983 to...
1/2 in 2014
What did the number of clergy drop to in the 20th century?
34,000 from 45,000
What percentage of Anglican clergy are under 40?
Who predicted that if secularisation continues, the Methodist church will fold around 2030 and the Church of England will be a small voluntary organisation?
Who speaks about rationalisation (and disenchantment) as a reason for secularisation?
Which religious group links in with rationalisation and disenchantment?
Who spoke about the technological worldview within secularisation?
Who spoke about structural differentiation as a reason for secularisation?
Who agrees that religion has become privatised (separated from wider society and its original functions)?
Who argues that in pre-industrial communities shared values were expressed through collective religious rituals and the decline of these communities has led to secularisation?
Who sees industrialisation as undermining the consensus of religious beliefs that hold small rural communities together?
Who talks about the diversity of occupations in secularisation?
Who says the trend towards religious diversity is a cause of secularisation?
Which religious group(s) links in with the sacred canopy?
The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages and the Protestant Reformation
Who identified cultural defence and transition as two trends that go against the secularisation theory?
Who provides evidence for cultural transition with the study of religion and immigration to the USA?
Who changed their views and now argues that diversity and choice stimulate interest in religion?
Who agrees that religious diversity can make others question their beliefs but it isn't inevitable?
Who found that 45% of Americans attend church on Sundays and argues it's because religion in America has become superficial and a part of the American way of life?
Who found three sources of evidence to support the claim that America is become increasingly secular?
What have opinion polls suggested about church attendance in America?
It's been stable at 40% since 1940
Who found that opinion polls about church attendance in America didn't match the churches own attendance statistics after studying it in Ohio?
Hadaway, found that the level of attendance was 83% higher in interviewees than head counts in churches
Who concluded that the stable self-reported church attendance rate in America has masked a decline in attendance?
Who talks about secularisation from within?
Who identified a trend towards practical relativism among American Christians?
Who found that in 1924, 94% of churchgoing young people believed that Christianity was the only true religion but this dropped to 41% in 1977?
Lynd and Lynd
Who talked about churches and sects?
Who talked about denominations and cults?
Who argues that Troeltsch's idea of a church as having religious monopoly only applies to the Catholic Church before the Protestant Reformation when it had monopoly over society?
Who categorised NRMs based on their attitudes to the outside world?
What are some examples of world-rejecting NRMs?
Moonies, Children of God, Manson Family
What are some examples of world-accommodating NRMs?
What are some examples of world-accepting NRMs?
Who reject the idea of constructing typologies and say we should classify religious organisations based off the degree of conflict between the group and wider society?
Stark and Bainbridge
Who identified two kinds of organisation in conflict with society and subdivided cults?
Stark and Bainbridge
Who speaks about marginality?
What group links into marginality?
The Nation of Islam
Who speaks about relative deprivation?
Stark and Bainbridge
Who talks about social change (within the growth of religious movements)?
Who sees society as secularised leading to people being less attracted to traditional churches and strict sects?
Who talks about the growth of world-rejecting NRMs since the 1960s?
Who talks about the growth of world-affirming NRMs?
Who states that sects result from schisms and are short lived?
Who talks about the sectarian cycle?
Stark and Bainbridge
Who argues that not all sects die out?
Who argues the appeal of the New Age is linked to a shift towards a postmodern society?
Who argues that the New Age's growth is a feature of the latest phase of modern society?
Who found that female churchgoers outnumber men by 1/2 a million?
What percentage of men and women have a religion?
44% of men to 55% of women
Who talks about risk, socialisation and roles as a reason for women's higher levels of religiosity?
Miller and Hoffman
Who argues that women's role to take care of family members increases their religiosity?
Who argues that women being closer to birth and death makes them more religious?
Who talks about paid work as a reason for women's higher levels in religiosity?
Who talks about the 'decline of female piety'?
Who argues that churches become feminised spaces has made religion more attractive to women?
Who argues that women's experience of child-tearing makes them less agressive and goal-orientated which fits the emphasis of the New Age?
Who talks about the individual sphere in women and their religiosity?
Who points out that there is class differences in the types of religion that appeal to women?
Who talks about women, compensators and sects?
Stark and Bainbridge
Who talks about the Pentecostal Gender Paradox?
Who found that black people are twice as likely to attend church than whites?
Who said that religious importance among second generation ethnic minorities is declining?
Who talks about cultural defence?
Bruce and Bird
Who talks about cultural transition?
Herberg and Bruce and Pryce (study of African Carribean community in Bristol)
By 2025, what percentage of churchgoers will be 15-19?
Who suggested three different reasons for age differences in religiosity?
Voas and Crockett
Who talks about the virtual collapse of religious socialisation?
Arweck and Beckford
Who said that even parents that share the same faith only have a 50/50 chance of raising their child to be a churchgoer as an adult?
Sets with similar terms
Religion ( new )
Beliefs in society - key theorists