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Approaches - Psychodynamics
Terms in this set (17)
What are the key assumptions?
*behaviour is determined by early childhood experiences
*behaviour is influenced by things in the unconscious mind
*behaviour is motivated by instinctive drives: sex and aggression
what did Freud believe was the 3 stages of the unconscious mind?
What is a Freudian slip?
*slip of the tongue
*parapraxis - verbal stumbling's could reveal forbidden passions and urges which are usually locked so far below the conscious mind that we don't know they exist
what is the structure of personality?
*id - entirely unconscious
*ego - unconscious and conscious
*superego - unconscious and conscious
what is the id?
*a mass of our inherited biological drives
*operates on the pleasure principle - driven by basic, selfish desires
*entirely irrational and therefore doesn't that some principles are inappropriate
*is present from birth
what is the ego?
*operated on the reality principle - rational and uses logic
what is the superego?
*internalised sense of right and wrong
*operates on the morality principle - strives to uphold moral standards and punishes the ego with guilt for any wrong doings
when do the three structures of personality develop?
*id - at birth, infantile
*ego - develops at the age of two
*superego - develops at the age of five
what are the main functions of the three structures of personalities?
*id - motivated by innate biological drives: sex and aggression. seeks immediate gratification. largely impulsive and selfish
*ego - attempts to resolve the conflict between the id and the superego. works on reality principle and will seek rational alternate solution. responsible for defence mechanisms
*superego - motivated by consciousness and moralistic codes. expects to treat people with love and respect . responsible for feeling of guilt
what is the result of when the id and superego dominate?
*id dominating - results in psychotic behaviours that are characterised by loss of grip on reality such as schizophrenia
*superego dominating - results in neurotic disorders that are characterised by anxiety and guilt such as depression
What are defense mechanisms?
*one way of helping the go to balance conflicting demands of the id and the superego
*they are unconscious strategies used by the ego to prevent anxiety when faced with unpleasant emotions and may create guilt or embarrassment
*defence mechanisms distort reality so that we are protected from having/accepting unpleasant feelings
what are the 6 defence mechanisms and their definitions?
*repression - forcing a distressing memory into the unconscious mind, no longer aware of it
*denial - refusing to acknowledge or admit to some aspect or reality
*displacement - transferring unacceptable emotions from true source onto a substitute deemed more acceptable
* regression - reverting to infantile behaviour when you're not satisfied
*sublimation - replacing socially unacceptable behaviours with socially acceptable alternatives
*rationalisation - creating false excuses for unacceptable thoughts and feelings
what are the psychosexual stages?
(according to Freud)children develop their identity and sexuality through 5 stages, occurring from birth up to puberty, he called these psychosexual stages
what are the stages of the psychosexual stages and the zones?
*oral(0-1) - mouth
*anal(1-3) - anus
*phallic(3-6) - genitals
*genitals(12+) - genitals
what are each psychosexual stages' conflict & other experiences and consequences of fixiation?
*oral - weaning - smoking, nail biting
*anal - potty training - retentive, expulsive
*phallic - identification with same-sex parent, resolution of sexual threat with them - phallic personality, possible homosexual
*latent - getting satisfaction from school and activities -
*genitals - reaching sexual maturity/puberty - healthy relationships
What is the Oedipus complex?
*during the phallic stage, his libido is unconsciously directed on the first opposite-sex 'template' in his experience - his mother.
*a conflict arises from the reality that the boy's sexual pleasure will not be satisfied by the mother, and that the father is a rival for the mothers attention
*the boy develops an unconscious fear that the father may get rid of the competition by removing the boy's penis - fear is called 'castration anxiety'
what was the case study by Sigman Freud for the psychosexual stages?
*'little Hans' - studied remotely by Freud (1909)
*Hans had a fear of white horses - especially those with black blinkers - displacement
*his father wore thick, black rimmed glasses - displacement
*he was afraid he'd be bitten by a horse - castration anxiety
*developed his phobia after being denied access to parents bed - Oedipus complex
*was occupied with his penis and wanted his mother to touch it - Oedipus complex
*had been threatened by parents to cut off his penis is he kept touching it - castration anxiety
*later described dreams of a Plummer fitting him with a bigger penis 'just like daddy's' - identification with his father
*no longer scared of horses - identification with his father
This set is often in folders with...
The learning approach - behaviourism
The learning approach - Social learning theory
The learning approach - the cognitive approach
The learning approach - the humanistic approach
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