Upgrade to remove ads
mammary glands and lactation
Terms in this set (14)
1) for puppies
2) for kittens
1) 0-12 days
2) 0-14 days
mammary gland characteristics:
1) what are mammary glands?
2) what do they produce?
3) present in? function in?
1) specialised skin glands
2) colostrum and milk
3) both females and males
females due to the hormones that stimulate them
1) how many mammary glands do horses have?
2) how many mammary glands do pigs have?
3) where are mammary glands located in cattle and horses?
4) where are mammary glands located in dogs, cats and pigs?
5) number of openings from which milk emerges: cattle sheep and goats, dogs, and humans
3) the inguinal (groin region) only
4) inguinal, abdominal and thoracic region
5) cattle, sheep and goats = 1 per teat
dogs = up to 20
humans = up to 24
udder of cow:
1) how many mammary glands? how are they laid out?
1) 4. called quarters. each quarter is a completely separate unit. each have their own milk-secreting systems and ducts leading down to their own teats
2) each udder is very heavy in cows. suspensory system supports and attaches the udder to the body wall. contains sling-like arrangement of ligaments which run down the centre and around the side of the udder
alveoli and duct system
1) what is an alveoli?
2) what is an alveolar duct?
3) how are alveoli arranged around the ducts?
4) how is the duct system set out?
5) similar arrangement to?
6) gland sinus? teat sinus?
7) what is the streak canal?
1) small, milk-secreting units of the mammary gland
2) each alveolus is a tiny, sac-like arrangement of cells that secrete milk into a tiny tube, called an alveolar duct
3) like clusters of grapes around ducts
4) tiny ducts join to form larger ducts, then join to form larger ducts, etc...
5) branches on a tree
6) gland sinus is continuous with the teat sinus. they are the largest spaces where milk accumulates when milk letdown has occurred
7) at the tip of the teat
passageway from teat sinus to the outside
surrounded by elastic fibres and a sphincter muscle that keep it closed most of the time (to minimise leakage)
mammary gland development:
1) stay small and undeveloped until?
2) what happens when the oestrus cycle begins?
3) which hormones encourage development of the glands?
4) which hormones stimulate ovaries to produce oestrogen and progesterone?
5) what do oestrogen and progesterone do?
6) which hormones influence the process through their target organs
7) abnormally high hormone levels in a young animal?
2) the mammary glands respond to new hormones by enlarging and developing the capability to produce milk
3) prolactin and GH
4) FSH and LH
5) encourage alveoli and duct systems of mammary glands to develop
6) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
7) may inhibit mammary gland development
1) begins when?
2) which hormones from where start lactation?
1) towards the end of pregnancy
2) prolactin and GH from anterior pituitary gland
and hormones from the adrenal cortex
1) what does it look like?
2) what does it contain?
3) it has a laxative effect, why is this a good thing?
4) most important role?
5) how does it carry out its function?
6) how long does it need this for?
7) what happens if colostrum isn't consumed?
8) what can this lead to?
1) thicker and more yellow than milk
2) high levels of proteins amino acids, lipids, and essential vitamins
3) helps clear dark, sticky meconium from neonates intestinal tract)
4) transfer of passive immunity
5) among the proteins are high levels of immunoglobulins, called antibodies (which dam has been exposed to or vaccinated against)
6) until its own immune system matures sufficiently to protect itself
7) if not consumed in the first few hours, the lining of the neonate's intestines can no longer absorb absorb antibodies
8) fading puppy/kitten syndrome
passive immunity and vaccination:
1) what is vaccination is too early?
2) what is vaccination is too late?
3) what is the solution to this problem?
1) if the puppy/kitten has high levels of antibodies from the mother in its blood when vaccinated, the vaccine will be inactivated and will not stimulate the immune system to manufacture new antibodies
2) the passive immunity can wear off, leaving the animal vulnerable to infections
3) give young animals a series of vaccinations
spread over period when protection from passive immunity is most likely to be wearing off
milk letdown: how is it stimulated? (3 ways)
2) kneading (kittens and puppies)
3) knocking (lambs and calves)
milk letdown reflex:
1) outline the reflex
2) how long does it take?
3) what can interrupt it?
1) sensory nerve impulses sent to brain
hypothalamus releases oxytocin from posterior pituitary gland
oxytocin travels to mammary gland
causes myoepithelial cells around the alveoli and small ducts to contract
squeezes milk down into larger ducts and then into the sinuses
milk available for nursing and milking
2) few second -> 1 minute. slight delay before milk flows freely
3) stress and pain
maintenance of lactation:
1) what causes lactation to continue?
2) how does lactation stop?
1) will continue as long as the gland is emptied regularly and is continually stimulated
continual sending of sensory impulses to the brain
2) when nursing/milking stops, flow of essential hormones stops too
lack of hormonal stimulation and increased pressure in the gland causes lactation to gradually cease
mammary gland 'dries up' = involution of mammary gland
1) what is it?
3) prevented through?
1) infection of the mammary gland
2) doesn't spread directly from one quarter to another - has to spread down the teat and duct system, then up the other quarters teat and duct system
rarely can spread through bloodstream
3) prevented through good milking hygiene i.e. keeping facilities and animals clean, milking infected animals last
1) common in? also seen in?
2) are they benign or malignant in dogs? what about in cats?
3) usually in?
5) just one tumour? multiple?
1) entire bitches. entire cats
2) 50% are benign in dogs. in cats, usually malignant
3) middle-aged to older females
4) surgical treatment
5) can have multiple tumours affecting numerous glands
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Pregnancy, Development, and Lactation
ASI 400 exam #2
Bio 118 Ch 50
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
more high risk anaesthesia