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exam questions communicable disease (set 1)
Terms in this set (16)
Plasmodium is described as a parasite.
Define the term parasite
lives , in gains nutrition / feeds , from (host)
Explain why the human body's primary defences do not prevent the entry of Plasmodium
into the body.
mosquito feeds on blood ;
breaks skin skin cannot act as barrier
Suggest why malaria is much more common in tropical areas than in other parts of the world.
suitable climate for , mosquito
more mosquitoes live there
idea of relatively poor so methods of prevention less
Suggest two reasons why governments in parts of the world other than tropical areas,
are also becoming increasingly concerned about malaria.
climate change, may result in
spread to other parts of the world
idea of increased movement of (infected) people
In patients with IDA, anaemia is caused by the destruction of erythrocytes (red blood
cells) by phagocytosis.
Suggest why erythrocytes that contain Plasmodium are more likely to be destroyed by
phagocytosis than healthy erythrocytes.
chemicals that attract phagocytes released from
Describe the differences between globular and fibrous proteins using haemoglobin and
collagen as examples.
spherical hydrophilic , (R-)groups / regions , on outside (of 3-D
structure) / hydrophobic (R-)groups on inside ;
form H-bonds with water soluble.
insoluble / few hydrophilic groups ;
strong / provide strength ;
have structural role ;
Describe how the structure of antibodies allows them to perform their function.(7)
2 light chains and 2 heavy chains
variable region allows attachment to antigen
two variable regions allow binding of more than
one (of the same) antigen ;
variable region on different antibodies allows specificity
to different antigens
constant region allows , attachment to phagocytes ;
hinge (region) allows flexibility
disulfide , bonds / bridges , hold , polypeptides / light
and heavy chains , together
cover / block , binding site / antigen / receptor site (on
bind to toxins ;
prevent , binding / entry , to (host) cell
clump / bind together , (many) pathogens ;
(clump) too large to , enter (host) cell / cross
increase likelihood of being consumed by (named)
phagocyte / more can be consumed by phagocyte at
"Bacteria can evolve quickly and many are now immune to antibiotics."
Explain why the student's use of the word 'immune' was incorrect.
immunity involves an immune system ;
(correct term is) resistant ;
bacteria are unicellular / only multicellular organisms
(can) have an immune response;
Why are phagocytes described as a secondary defence against pathogens?
involved after , pathogen / AW , has entered the
Why is the response involving phagocytes regarded as non-specific?
phagocytes able to, digest many different , pathogens
Describe the process by which a pathogen is destroyed after it has become attached to
the surface of a phagocyte.
pathogen engulfed by cytoplasm
endocytosis / phagocytosis ;
phagosome / phagocytic
vacuole / phagocytic vesicle (phago) lysosomes ;
move towards /fuse with (each other) ;
(pathogen) digested / broken down /
(to) amino acid / sugar / glucose / fatty acid /
(break down products) absorbed / AW (into
unwanted products removed (by exocytosis) ;
cytoskeleton involved in (endocytosis /
movement of vesicles) ;
Name the infective agent that causes TB
Describe how the infective agent that causes TB is transmitted from one individual to another.
droplets (containing pathogen) ;
(released by) coughing
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