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Power and The people AQA revision
Terms in this set (63)
What year did the Peasants Revolt take place ?
Name the Economic Causes of the Peasants Revolt
-Poor economic situation early in 1300s
-Statuate Labourers 1351
-High Taxes due to 100s years war
-Poll tax 1381
What was the Poor economic situation early 1300s?
-1315-17 harvest fell by 50%
-1319-1320 half population of sheep died
-Became difficult to cultivate land
-So food prices went up as did rents
What was the Statuate Of Labourers ?
-Passed in 1351
- Lord & King concerned that after black death peasants had too much power due to high demand for workers
- passed law that said "shall only reccieve the same wages as before the plague" "(peasants) must work for those who want them"
-1377-79 70% of criminals were those breaking this law
What were the High taxes due to 100s years war? (PR)
-war was going badly to fund this King introduced 3 taxes over 3 years
-1377 commoners refused increase ammount of tax they were paying so left burden to the peasants and poor
-Disproportionate burden on poor
What was the poll tax of 1381 ?
-Trigger cause to the revolt
-to pay for invasion on france
- 2 weeks wages for all labourers regardless of earnings
-Peasants had enough
Name the Political causes of The peasants Revolt
-Death Of Edward 3
-Hundred's years war
What was the issue of Edward 3 death ? (PR)
-Inexperienced 11 y/o Richard 2 replaces him in 1377
-John Gaunt his uncle and most hated landowner becomes his advisor , advises poll taxes
Political Problem with Hundred's year war?
-1377 attack on town of Rye by french and it is burned down
Name Social causes of Peasants Revolt
-Black death 1348-49
- John Balls ideas
What were John Ball's ideas ?
-Priest who preached against exploitation of peasants
-Preached everyone was equal in eyes of God and that people should not pay to pardon their sins
-He was arrested in 1381
What was the Black Death and how did it cause peasants revolt?
-30-50% of pop were killed
-rich were forced to lower rents and raised wages as labourers were necessary but in high demand
-Peasants could choose to work where they wanted
-Landlords acted by giving them more work to do e.g they kept more sheep
-The statuate of labourers stopped any increased wage
Key Events In Peasants Revolt
- June 7 Maidstone : Peasants become threat to King as the kill the Archbishop of Canterbury and storm Rochester castle , free John Ball
- June 13 City of London : Peasants are let in city gates by supporters , stormJohn Gaunt's Savoy Palace burn it to the ground , kill merchants and supporters of the King ,
-June 14 Mile end: Wat tyler meets King outlines peasants demands , King agrees to set all peasants free and pardon all involved in uprising , some go home peacful other peasants continue to kill
-June 15 Smithfield: King meets rebels again Tyler is bold and refuses to settle till demands are met he wants full change to legal system
One of the kings men steps forward and Kills Tyler the peasants are confused but the king demands and threatens that they dont act violently against him but instead follow king out of London. Revolt ends
Short Term Impacts of Peasants Revolt
- Richard does not keep his promisies serfdom (peasants being forced to work and tied to their landlord for low wages) is not abolished
-Rebels are punished some are hung
-Historians think revolt made King over confident and this lead to his downfall
Long term impacts of Peasants Revolt
-Rich were frightened realised couldn't abuse the poor , no poll tax again till 1989
- Gov were angry with John ball so persecuted John Balls group of christians for century following
-Demands of Rebel Peasants were further realised in next 100 years they were freemen
- When gov released poll tax of 1989 protesters purposefully echoed peasants march through london
What was the war factor for Peasants Revolt?
- Hundred's year war caused frustration and anger with King
- Meant Poll Tax had to be introduced
What was the chance factor of the peasants revolt ?
-Black death - the chance the black death occurred when it did
-Chance of coinciding spontaneous uprising in counties all over country
What was the government factor of the Peasants Revolt?
-The way there was an Arbitrary government with John Gaunt making most of the descions was unfair
- The way poll tax was introduced to purposefully target the poor
What was the ideas Factor of the Peasants Revolt ?
-John Balls ideas about everyone being equal and radically different religious ideas about not exploiting the poor and God creating everyone equally (not paying to pardon sins)
- Wat Tylers ideas about revolting against those in power and using violence to do so
What was the role of the induvidual factor in Peasants Revolt ?
John Ball - and his ideas about justice and equality for all
Wat Tyler - was a strong demanding leader who became a martyr for his cause , he was a inspirational speaker
Richard 11- Made foolish descions which lead to peasants wanting to rebel if hadn't introduced such extreme taxes there would have possibly not been a rebellion
John Gaunt- Being an arbitrary advisor and creating / demanding taxes which targeted the peasants - most hated landowner in the country
Name the causes of the Magna Carta
-Personal Grievances w/ John
-Distrust of John
What were the Personal Grievances Barons had with John ?
- John tried to seduce John Fitzwlaters daughter and then outlawed him in 1212 for concerns he was conspiring against John
How did John rule with an Arbitrary gov and why did this lead to the Magna Carta ?
-Would one of tax Barons randomly to compensate failures
- Would continually go to war
- John became excommunicated by the pope as he didn't listen to Popes demands and advice
What role did taxation play in being a cause of the Magna Carta ?
- John charged special tax called scutage which he forced Barons to pay due to his failures at war
-John used scutage 11 times in 15 years 1199-1214
What were John's failures and why did it lead to barons becoming frustrated ?
-John looses his land in Normandy in 1204 to French King but continues to fight
- John looses the entire of Normandy 1214 and Barons are annoyed he has lost their land and is charging them scutage to compensate for his failures in fighting
Why did the Barons distrust John ?
- Because he became excommunicated people didn't trust him because religion was so important
-John extorted his Barons , randomly taxing them etc.
Key events in the negotiations of Magna Carta
- Through reign Barons made several complaints but John refused to change
- 1214 English Barons Raise army against John , Robert Fitzwalter is the leader because John has no financial support to raise army with out Barons he agrees to meet with them
-1215 June 15 Runnymede Barons force John to meet with them and draw up a list of grievances and lawsJohn will have to abide by this is the Magna Carta , he signs it but sees it as temporary agreement
Events in the Short Term significance of Magna Carta and who has the Power
- Oct - Nov 1215 Seige of Rochester : John causes A tower at Rochester castle to collapse while it is occupied by Barons and takes back Rochester , John has the Power
- May 1216 : First Barons War w/ help from French , Barons ask Louis of France to help them against John with reward of English throne by May Louis has control of most of England , Barons have the Power
- Oct 1216 : King John Dies Barons make Henry johns 9 y/o son king and reject Louis as King , they make Henry agree to Magna Carta and because he was so young he was easily controlled and manipulated by the Barons , Barons have beaten John they have the power
Long term Impacts of Magna Carta
-Magna Carta used by Parliamentarians in English Civil war 1642-1649 to justify the actions they were taking against King
-The American Revo. 1775-1783 , the colonists used Magna Carta saying they were fighting for the ability to govern themselves fairly and perserve the rights of the Magna Carta , the constitution written by colonists had parts directly derived from Magna Carta
-1998 Human Rights act in Britain has its roots and principles in ideas of the Magna Carta
-Universal Declaration of Human Rights was described by creator Eleanor Roosevelt as "international Magna Carta"
- Argued Magna Carta was first to establish human rights
What was the religion factor that lead to Magna Carta ?
-Barons disliked John immensely and didn't trust him due to becoming excommunicated
-Allowed english church to be free
What was the factor of Government leading to Magna Carta ?
-Barons formed own version of Government and introduced idea that power wasn't just to be held by one entity
-The great council had power over descions
What factor did communication have on Magna Carta ?
- John and The barons met face to face at Runnymede so the Magna carta could be permanently signed , first instance of King being forced to sign and agree to documents
What factor did ideas have within Magna Carta?
-Allowed "mere" people have the opportunity to have ideas heard
- Idea King wasn't above the law lead to magna carta
What factor did Role of the Induvidual play in Magna Carta?
King John and mistakes - His greed , foolishness and taxation lead to Barons becoming frustrated and eventually Magna Carta
When was the Magna Carta signed?
15th June 1215
Causes to Henry 3 and Barons falling out ( Simon De Montfort & Provisions of Oxford )
- Simon De Montfort's Personal Issues bringing him to leadership of Barons
How did taxation lead to Baron's falling out with Henry and the eventual Provisions of Oxford ?
-Raised taxes to pay for Sicilian war , Barons were not happy as if they were paying taxes they wanted church appointments
How did the Sicilian war lead to Henry 3 and his Barons falling out ?
- Henry was unable to pay money he promised to pope to make the Sicilian campaign a success so was threatened with excommunication
- As a result Henry had to raise taxes to pay off Sicilian war this outraged Barons
How did Henry's advisors lead to Fall out with Barons?
- Henry had close connections to French as he was married to french woman , this alarmed Barons as they disliked the French
- Got worse when Henry allowed French into Great Council
-His main advisor was also French
- Barons felt england was being run by aliens and French excluded Barons from Power and influence
What role did appointments have in making Henry 3 Barons fall out with him ?
-Henry gave most important clergy jobs to Italians because of his fear of excommunication from pope
-Stopped Barons becoming promoted within church and they became frustrated with Henrys subservience to Pope
How did war in Gascony lead to Fall out with barons and Henry 3?
- in 1230 Henry was unsuccessful in reclaiming land lost in Gascony
-1248 De montfort was sent to France and managed to reclaim land by acting violently against French
-Henry was upset with De Montfort as he was sympathetic to French so called him away from his mission in France
-De Montfort was furious he had be forbidden to finish his campaign as were Barons
What role did De Montforts Personal issues bringing him into a Leaderships of Barons have on the fall out between henry and His Barons and the creation of the Provisions of Oxford ?
- De Montfort was put on trial twice by Henry for his Actions in Gascony once in 1252 and once in 1260
-De Montfort felt let down by Henry's actions and became spokesperson for Barons , Barons thought this was good cause he was also married to Henry's sister
-lead to further separation between barons and Henry
What was the triggering factor in how the great council and provisions of Oxford of 1258 ?
-1254 Barons refuse to fund Henry's schemes so he faces excommunication from the church and Barons will not pay taxes
- 1258 Barons have bad enough they demand a great council to rule jointly with the King and create Provisions of Oxford , led by De montfort who had now regained his wealth and became key player in reforming royal power
What did the Provisions of Oxford entail?
-Tax would be decided at local level
- 15 Barons would be elected to run the Great Council
-Henry 3 forced to re agree to Magna Carta
- Barons refused to fund Sicilian campaigns
What were the short term consequences to the Provisions of Oxford ?
- Power of the barons increased
- There was opposition to POV and barons were divided
-Provisions of Westminster 1259 (curtailed Barons power also)
What were the Longer term consequences of the POV and the 1258 great council ?
-1261 Henry's return to power due tp divisions between Barons
-1264 Battle of Lewes where Henry was defeated and De Montfort becomes most powerful man
What was the 1265 Parliament?
-De montfort felt he was losing support so called Great Council but for first time invited Knights (local representatives) called them Commoners
What were the Consequences of 1265 Parliament?
-Was the foundation for the House of Commons
- grievances of commoners were meant and this increased support for De montfort
-However 1265 Battle of Evesham
What was the Battle of Evesham ?
-Barons were concerned about own interests and believed De montfort was ruling as autocrat so they supported Henry 3
-Prince edward escaped and raised army to take De montforts power
-Battle of Evesham forces met and Henry
what did the factor of religion have on the POV , SDM and 1265 parliament?
-Henry ended up putting his loyalties to the pope above barons and this is what created tension as Henry kept raising taxes for Sicilian war etc.
-SDM was very pious and had strong relationship with the pope
-Henry was Threatened with excommunication
-Consequently made SDM more appealing as leader
what factor did chance have on POV SDM and 1265 parliament ?
-Simon married the Kings sister this allowed him to gain wealth , influence and opportunity
what factor did economy have on POV, SDM and 1265 parliament?
-Taxes pushed Barons towards Simon e.g taxes for Sicilian war
what factor did ideas have on POV , SDM and the 1265 Parliament?
-Because of the position SDM held being married to kings sister he therefore had a good platform for ideas to be heard
-Created the idea of the house of commons and also led the Barons to the creation of the Great Council , some people view SDM as the father of Parliament
What factor did role of the individual have on POV , SDM and the 1265 Parliament ?
-Henry 3 mistakes lading to resentment from the Barons
- The popes pressure on Henry 3 to provide taxes for Sicilian campaigns
-SDMs grievances against Henry and his strong leadership and ideas
what year was Simons Parliament of Commoners created ?
what year were the POV created ?
what year did the POG happen ?
Main causes of the POG?
-Dissolution of monasteries
-Role of Luther and protestantism
-Creation of COE in 1534
-Act of Supremacy
why did the dissolution of the monasteries lead to POG ?
-Monastries had been used to shelter the homeless and provide for those in Poverty
-They were being closed as suggestion from Thomas Cromwell because Henry was in such debt
Economic Factors leading to POG ?
-Poor harvest 1535 coupled with taxation from King in 1534s as well as the dissolution of monasteries made commoners increasingly angry
-Entry fines (sum of money paid to inherit land from father) were being rapidly increased to help pay off Henry's debts
Social Factors leading to POG
What role did Act of Supremacy play in causing POG ?
-1354 Thomas Cromwell and Henry Pass AOS
-Made it treason to not accept Henry as head
-Upset many of the Pilgrims as they believed Pope should be the head of the Church
What role did The creation of COE play on POG ?
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