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Terms in this set (20)
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
When a covalent bond breaks and each bonding atom receives one electron from the bonded pair
Species with an unpaired electron
When a covalent bond breaks and one bonded atom receives both electrons from the bonded pair
What is an alkane?
A saturated hydrocarbon, with C—C and C—H bonds only
What is a use of an alkane?
What sort of bonds occur between alkanes?
What is a sigma bond?
Single bond, where two orbitals overlap (linear overlap of orbitals)
What happens to the boiling point of alkanes as chain length increases?
It increases because the molecule has more electrons and so the strength of the London forces increases, so more energy is needed to overcome the forces of attraction
How does branching affect the boiling point of alkanes?
Unbranched alkanes have more surface points of contact (as they can get closer together), so the London forces are stronger, and the boiling point increases
What is the reactivity of alkanes?
Why do alkanes have low reactivity?
The C—C and C—H sigma bonds are strong; the C—C bonds are non-polar; the electronegativity of C and H is similar, so the bonds are considered non-polar, and so can't attract positive or negative chemicals
What happens when hydrocarbons combust in oxygen?
They release heat energy (exothermic)
What is complete combustion?
When something is burnt with a sufficient oxygen supply
What are the products of complete combustion?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is incomplete combustion?
When something is burnt with an insufficient oxygen supply
What are the products of incomplete combustion?
Carbon, carbon monoxide carbon dioxide and water
What are the problems with carbon monoxide?
It's poisonous, odourless and colourless, so can't be detected; it bonds to haemoglobin; it forms in internal combustion engines; in homes the oxygen supply to appliances becomes (partially) blocked
How is a haloalkane formed?
What is substitution?
When one atom or group is replaced by a »
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